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 20180517《靜思妙蓮華》龍女忽現 讚佛實智 (第1350集) (法華經·提婆達多品第十二)

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20180517《靜思妙蓮華》龍女忽現 讚佛實智  (第1350集) (法華經·提婆達多品第十二) Empty
發表主題: 20180517《靜思妙蓮華》龍女忽現 讚佛實智 (第1350集) (法華經·提婆達多品第十二)   20180517《靜思妙蓮華》龍女忽現 讚佛實智  (第1350集) (法華經·提婆達多品第十二) Empty周四 五月 17, 2018 11:14 am

20180517《靜思妙蓮華》龍女忽現 讚佛實智 (第1350集) (法華經·提婆達多品第十二)

⊙文殊龍宮化眾,乘蓮會歸靈山;龍女智超常理,智積疑慮難解。諦理論說體空,事相會悟妙諦;龍女讚佛證已,深達實智,朗照無遺。
⊙若如來以不思議慈悲等觀妙智,靜思惟之,則眾生皆有覺性,不見有九界之罪相。
⊙「觀三千大千世界,乃至無有如芥子許,非是菩薩捨身命處,為眾生故,然後乃得成菩提道,不信此女於須臾頃便成正覺。」《法華經提婆達多品第十二》
⊙「言論未訖,時龍王女忽現於前,頭面禮敬,卻住一面。」《法華經提婆達多品第十二》
⊙言論未訖,時龍王女忽現於前:智積文殊言論未畢,龍女神通力故,欲證是事,所以現前。
⊙忽現:表明如來實智朗照無遺。謂如來深達罪福,五逆十惡等為罪,五戒十善等為福。罪有苦報,福有樂果。自當證知我須臾而成佛。
⊙「以偈讚曰:深達罪福相,遍照於十方,微妙淨法身,具相三十二以八十種好,用莊嚴法師。」《法華經提婆達多品第十二》
⊙罪福相:謂全法界一切,因緣果報之相,如三惡道為罪相,則人天為福相。九界之人,雖有淺深之別,而盡不免無明之情執,獨離情執而全知見者但佛界之一而已。
⊙佛於此差別之相,悉皆遍照,了知其等於法界,等於虛空此為佛之報身。深達實相之智體,本來微妙清淨,此為佛之法身。
⊙微妙淨法身,具相三十二:微妙即報身,淨法即法身,三十二即應身,一語該括,總歎三身,明法身,清淨圓滿。
⊙以八十種好,用莊嚴法身:若據法身,萬德相好,以為莊嚴,相好莊嚴:此為佛之應化身。
⊙所謂微塵相海,功德妙身,今言八十,用嚴法身,即於劣應,點出妙體,本跡不二,方契圓宗。

【證嚴上人開示】
文殊龍宮化眾,乘蓮會歸靈山;龍女智超常理,智積疑慮難解。諦理論說體空,事相會悟妙諦;龍女讚佛證已,深達實智,朗照無遺。

文殊龍宮化眾
乘蓮會歸靈山
龍女智超常理
智積疑慮難解
諦理論說體空
事相會悟妙諦
龍女讚佛證已
深達實智
朗照無遺

我們前面說過了,已經能夠了解,了解就是〈見寶塔品〉,多寶佛為了聽《法華經》,來人間,他發願哪一個地方,講說《法華經》,他的寶塔現前。人間釋迦牟尼佛成佛了,已經說法四十多年過去了,《法華經》已開始明顯講說,所以多寶佛,就是也來聽《法華經》,到靈鷲山,與寶塔同時就顯現在那個會上,從地湧出,浮現虛空。這裡面念蓋著的道理,前面我也已經解釋過了,我們人人心中都有一靈山會,靈山會中出現多寶塔,塔中古來佛,今佛、古佛會合。這個意義就是要讓大家知道,我們人人已經聽《法華經》,也這段時間這麼長了,一直就能體會了解,佛陀一大事因緣,一而再,再而三,佛陀人間傳法,要讓我們了解人人本具佛性,真如本性與佛同等,平等啊!「心、佛、眾生三無差別」,只是我們與佛還有一段很長的距離。佛陀與天體合一了,這本性覺海已經回歸了,我們凡夫呢?凡夫的無明污染,這與我們平時所看到的,慈濟人走入那個貧困的家庭,破爛囤積滿屋子裡面。一群菩薩就進去他的屋子內,這樣為他清理、打掃,裡面的污垢、骯髒,那個境界,我們若將它回想起來,我們凡夫的心地就與這樣一樣。

我們前面也說過了火宅,〈譬喻品〉講說了火宅。大長者,他有這麼豪華的一間大宅,這間大宅的裡面有很多的孩子。因為因緣,大長者他到外面去了,這間屋子裡面主人不在,裡面這些這一群孩子,不斷貪玩、放蕩、墮落了,只是想要玩,只想要享受,一直一直年久月深,這間大宅年久失修了,都沒有在整理,垃圾不斷不斷囤積,裡面骯髒。

我們將這個道理,《法華經》這段的故事,來看看現在,人類的墮落,就像這樣一樣!所以我們眾不斷生生生世世,在這個三界火宅之中,不斷濁氣愈來愈重,人心煩惱無明愈來愈多,造作愈來是愈墮落,那個無明煩惱,造業愈重,所以空間就這樣愈來愈髒,囤積的東西愈來是愈多,這就是我們在三界之內,這個大宅,這個大空間是變成是這樣。

大空間,這一大群的眾生,就是這樣貪慾造作,堪嘆啊!要怎麼辦呢?就是需要長者歸來了,看到火宅這樣裡面危險,趕緊叫啊,「快!這些孩子們趕緊快出來,裡面危險哦、很髒啊!趕快出來。」這些孩子也不要理睬他,不願意聽、不願意接受,和我們現在的眾生,豈不是一樣呢!有的時候,一群菩薩,好心人,接到個案,去到他的屋子門口,叫門都叫不開;哪怕是進去到裡面,要和他講話,他也不要理他們。甚至跟他說:「我來為你整理,不只整理你的身體,也要整理你的家庭。」還是不肯,都要用很多的時間,這樣去和他建立感情,取得他的信任,才有辦法一群人進去,幫助他清理這個家庭的垃圾,這不就是都一樣的境界呢?

佛陀、菩薩,要入我們的心,也不簡單呢!我們真正要去接受佛法,這也是,不是那麼的容易。所以,佛、菩薩,都要生生世世,這樣倒駕慈航來人間,一次再一次,一生再一生,不斷和我們結緣,不斷付出給我們,我們慢慢接受,才有這個因緣,聽到佛法,起歡喜心。聽佛法,歡喜心,願意接受了,但是,是不是一下就能夠接受,我們與佛同等的佛性,我們相信嗎?相信,我們就要,依照佛陀的教法,身體力行;讓你了解佛性原來,這個諦理,眾生因為執著的事情很多,就要讓我們一段一段,將這些執著、無明,要不斷不斷清理出去,就像大家,進去裡面,去為他清理垃圾一樣。垃圾清理出去了,沉積在裡面,在牆壁裡面,在廁所的裡面,一層一層的油,垢穢,就要如何去清洗?不是能動的東西,這樣搬出去就好了,還要再下功夫,久以來,長年累積的油、垢穢、髒亂的東西,就要,這樣不斷清、不斷刷,要這樣一層一層清理。

所以佛陀為眾生付出,而且教育是要這樣,一分一分,去除我們的污垢、骯髒。所以,聲聞、緣覺,你願意修行,那你就要割捨小愛,那就要就於大愛;要自覺,要覺他,要自愛、愛人。所以你願意修行,隨佛出家,就要好好清理你內心的污垢。

內心垃圾雖然清出去了,內心那個油垢的東西,還要再經過刷及擦,這就是聲聞、緣覺要下的功夫。裡面清理乾淨了,屋子也都要修理好了。這才開始,就是要讓大家很了解,這些物質全都是合成的,不論是從屋頂、地基,這都是合成而有的東西,那就是要讓大家知道,這些東西,髒污既然都出去了,連這間屋子,還是一樣是幻化虛有的。因為你若還有這間屋子在,同樣髒污會再進來,其實,人人一切都是空啊!但是「空」之後還有寶藏,這個寶藏是妙有,用之不盡,就是你內在的本性。

所以人人心中要有一個道場,你要時時曉得修行,要知道這個道場裡面,本來靈山會就在。佛陀現在已經把方便法,已經破除,現在打開的是真實一乘法,和你們說的過去是過程,現在進來,這個是真實的寶藏,讓我們能夠了解。所以,靈山會不但是現前了,寶塔也浮現了,不只是寶塔浮現,門也為我們開了,因為十方的分身佛集過來了,就是法。我們大家再回憶一下,法都回歸來集了。現在的佛,入我們的心,是現在釋迦牟尼佛。釋迦牟尼佛的法進來,就像進來和我們溝通,拜託我們的心門打開,裡面的垃圾讓他打掃,讓我們看出,原來這間屋子的真面目,就是這麼莊嚴,這麼清淨。

甚至還又告訴我們,這個東西還是合成而有,真正的就是,在我們自己內心本具,所以,古今的佛會合,我們能夠發現到,我們原來的真如本性,是因為佛,釋迦牟尼佛,為我們開示,是我們生生世世都有聽到的法。所以他這個時候,集十方分身佛再回來,讓我們能記得,其實,我們生生世世,我們都有接受到法了,今生此世,我們也已經都在佛的身邊,從聲聞、緣覺,一直到現在。這在〈見寶塔品〉這一段,開始就是要開寶塔門,讓我們了解。

所以這段經文過去了之後,智積菩薩就開始說:「我們已經聽《法華經》的目的,已經達到了,我們是不是回去了?」這是一個過程,雖然讓大家知道,但是,是不是能夠成佛呢?「眾生皆有佛性」,佛陀是這樣說,「眾生皆有佛性」,但是要成佛,已經講過了,要長長久久的時間,累生累世的時間,要用很多,捨身命,很辛苦的過程,這樣才能夠「六度萬行」完成。擔心有的人,聽到這樣,「這很辛苦!」又是像〈化城喻品〉半途而廢,擔心的是這樣。

所以,佛陀就是留著智積菩薩,「且待須臾」,因為有文殊菩薩將要回來了,你可以和文殊菩薩見面一下。看,這個時間,文殊菩薩就從海龍宮,就已經去講說《法華經》,已經回來了,甚至從海裡升座,千葉蓮華浮現出來了,所化的眾生,同樣也是坐著寶蓮花,蓮花為臺,升坐蓮花,回歸靈鷲山來了,都在空中。文殊菩薩下蓮華來,禮二尊佛,和智積菩薩見面了。文殊菩薩就講說了:「龍王女年始八歲,聽法,很快就能夠接受妙法,而且,得到「陀羅尼門」。智積菩薩,他沒辦法去了解。

這向這樣現這種非常奧妙,兩尊菩薩這樣現相,開始這個過程,所以是很微妙。乘寶蓮花,回歸靈鷲山來了,表達出了「龍女智超常理」,和一般的人是不同!所以,智積菩薩懷疑。這是不可思議,釋迦牟尼佛歷經了多久的時間,捨頭目髓腦,這麼的苦行,這麼久的時間才能夠成佛,龍王女哪有可能,這麼短的時間呢?我們昨天就講過了,他的懷疑:難道釋迦牟尼佛的根鈍嗎?要用這麼久的時間嗎?龍女那麼快速能夠成佛,這和釋迦牟尼佛來比較,不成對比啊!所以他就懷疑了,沒辦法去了解龍女這樣。現在智積還有執著,執著這個事和相,所以這「諦理」,要開始「論說體空」。因為智積菩薩,這個「體空」的道理,還沒有很透徹,在這個地方。

所以,「事相會悟妙諦」。因為龍女,她是以這個事相體空,去體會這個道理,但智積他沒辦法去體會這點,所以他心有疑。這點,當然說來,還是很微密的道理,甚深微密。她,龍女她能夠體悟,絕對有她的過程的因緣。所以,龍女她的過程因緣,她絕對,她就是有這樣,她一定要來表達。所以「龍女讚佛證已」,已經「深達實智」,也都智慧「朗照」了。所以「若如來以不思議,慈悲等觀妙智」。

若如來以不思議
慈悲等觀妙智
靜思惟之
則眾生皆有覺性
不見有九界之罪相

就要像如來,釋迦牟尼佛,諸佛,那種不可思議,慈悲等觀,這個妙智慧。我們常常說,「慈悲等觀」,就是不論眾生他的形體,六道、四生。既然皆有佛性,這就是已經釋迦牟尼佛「慈悲等觀妙智」。龍女呢?也是一樣啊!有這樣的過程修行過來的功夫,才有這種慈悲等觀的妙智。這就要經過了靜思惟修,要真正的思惟。「禪」,意思就是說,心都已經清淨了,就像大房屋,全都打掃得很清淨了。不只是屋子打掃得清淨,尤其是房屋和人,也能了解是「空」的,屋子讓你打掃得很好,人住在裡面,也有自然的法則,何況一間屋子是合成來的。

同樣的道理,就是要透徹這個本性體空,這真如性空的道理,那就是「靜思惟」。心裡都沒有髒污的東西,都是完全乾乾淨淨的真如本性,這就是眾生皆有覺性,全都有了。既然是這樣,已經「不見有九界之罪相」,雖然龍女,她是畜生類,智積菩薩就說,尤其是龍的性,是都很驕傲,這非載道器,這就是罪福的相;有了業力,生在畜生類;人類能夠接受佛法,能夠修行,畜生類也還沒辦法修行呢!那個形體不是有辦法可修行的,他怎麼會相信,龍女可以這麼快速接受佛法,微妙法呢?所以,他就有這麼多的疑問。

前面的文就這樣說:「觀三千大千世界,乃至無有如芥子許,非是菩薩捨身命處,為眾生故,然後乃得成菩提道,不信此女於須臾頃便成正覺。」

觀三千大千世界
乃至無有如芥子許
非是菩薩捨身命處
為眾生故
然後乃得成菩提道
不信此女
於須臾頃
便成正覺
《法華經提婆達多品第十二》

這段就是在說,釋迦牟尼佛在過去無始劫,任何一個地方,他都普遍沒有放棄,全都去修行。不論多大的世界,多微小的地方,多大的空間的道理,多麼微細的生物理,他都完全透徹了解,所以說,「如芥子許,非是菩薩捨身命處」。釋迦牟尼佛是為眾生,所以這樣不斷不斷,任何地方都去修行,就是去付出,去度化眾生,不怕辛苦,哪怕捨棄了頭目髓腦,就是這樣在施捨。所以「為眾生故,然後乃得成菩提道」,無不都是這樣在捨身命,才能夠成菩提道。所以智積菩薩說,不相信此女,這龍王之女,「於須臾頃便成正覺」。這是無法可相信!

下面這段文,就,因為智積菩薩就是不相信,文殊菩薩還沒有回答,「言論未訖」,開始講到這裡,這個當中,「時龍王女,忽現於前,頭面禮敬,卻住一面。」

言論未訖
時龍王女
忽現於前
頭面禮敬
卻住一面
《法華經提婆達多品第十二》

我們一直認為,文殊菩薩會回答他,但是文殊菩薩,不用文殊菩薩去回答,「言論未訖」,聲音還沒有結束,文殊菩薩還沒有回答,龍女突然現前了。

言論未訖
時龍王女
忽現於前:
智積文殊
言論未畢
龍女神通力故
欲證是事
所以現前

這是在「智積文殊,言論未畢」,還沒有講完,這就是龍女運用她的神力。因為智積不相信,她就不用文殊菩薩替她解釋,這是要表示龍女她也有神通。「看看智積菩薩你的疑,要問文殊,文殊不用回答,我現前給你看。」她就馬上就這樣,以神通力,證明這個事實,「我是真正體會到佛的妙理了,陀羅尼門都通達,總一切法,持一切善。我過去全都,法都清楚,過去那些善,我也全都有了,所以,總持門我全都(修)到了。」所以,證明這個事實,所以她這樣現前了。

所以,現前來到佛前,同樣「頭面禮敬」。這是一個禮節,龍王女也是這樣,和人的禮節一樣。之後,「卻住一面」。這個敬仰,該表達的表達完,就是退在一邊,這個道理就是很明顯。「忽現」,很突然間。「忽現」,就是要表達出了,「如來實智朗照無遺」。

忽現:
表明如來實智
朗照無遺
謂如來深達罪福
五逆十惡等為罪
五戒十善等為福
罪有苦報
福有樂果
自當證知
我須臾而成佛

這就是說,「如來深達罪福,五逆十惡」就是叫做「罪」。「五戒十善」等,叫做福。罪福,就是有罪的,就是得到苦報;造福的,就是得到樂果,這種「因緣觀」很微妙,這佛全都體會了解。那麼龍女她出現,就是要來要讓佛證明,善惡分明。

所以,「自當證知,我須臾即成佛」。要讓佛來為她證明。所以下面就是這樣的偈文,龍女禮敬,禮佛之後,退坐一面,開始她就用偈文來表達,這偈文所表達的就說,「深達罪福相,遍照於十方,微妙淨法身,具相三十二,以八十種好,用莊嚴法身」。

以偈讚曰
深達罪福相
遍照於十方
微妙淨法身
具相三十二
以八十種好
用莊嚴法師
《法華經提婆達多品第十二》

龍女開門見山,因為智積一直對她有懷疑,所以龍女她也是要爭一口氣,不用再經過文殊替她解釋,她現身要來與佛對答,開門見山,就要說:「佛啊!您最了解這罪福因果,相信佛陀您全都了解了。佛陀,您的智慧遍照十方。」這是龍女先讚歎佛,「深達一切罪福之相」。這也表達龍女她自己本身,也是一樣,她也是在這罪福之中,請佛陀來為她證明,所以「智慧光明遍照十方」,讚歎佛陀智慧光明遍照十方。

這個罪福的相,就是「全法界,一切因緣果報之相」。

罪福相:
謂全法界
一切因緣果報之相
如三惡道為罪相
則人天為福相
九界之人
雖有淺深之別
而盡不免
無明之情執
獨離情執
而全知見者
但佛界之一而已
九界之人
雖有淺深之別
而盡不免
無明之情執
獨離情執
而全知見者
但佛界之一而已

全法界,就是十界,「十界」,除了佛界,那就剩下「九界」,因為佛已經脫離了這罪福的相,佛已經脫離了這個相,他成佛了,與宇宙虛空完全合而為一體,所以剩下的,就是叫做「九界」。這個九界因緣,從菩薩,一直到「六道」,這「六道」的眾生全都一樣,有「四聖六凡」,這叫做「十界」。「六凡」就是六道,「四聖」,那就是聲聞、緣覺、菩薩、佛。佛已經是超越的聖人,得無上正等正覺,那就是菩薩還有微分的無明,所以他在九界之中。所以這是「如三惡道為罪相」,「三惡道」就是罪相,「人、天」就是福相。

「三惡道」就是地獄、餓鬼、畜生道;人與天,包括修羅,他們還是在有福。修羅,是有修善的福,但是就是沒有修智慧,所以,修福沒有修慧,那就是「修羅」,雖然沒有修慧,但他有修福;有修福,同樣也能得到福報。在天堂也有修羅,人間也有修羅,就是有福的人,但是,沒有智慧,這人間應該也有啊!我們用心去分析它,有啦!

所以說起來,人間,能作為人就是叫做福,因為人間能聽到佛法,人間能夠成佛,人間在善惡的界之內,你啟一念好心,就能夠修福了,你能夠修行,這就是人間,與其他的動物界不同。所以「九界之人,雖有淺深之別」。要修福,有很深的福能修;要造惡,也有很深的惡要造,這就是深惡,那就要墮「三途」;深的福,就是上天堂、人間,能夠修行。所以,在這個九界內,就是有淺深之分別,「而盡不免無明之情執」。這全都有無明,九界之中都有無明,菩薩還是還有微分的無明,那就是塵沙惑,很細的無明,但是我們要體會、要修啊!所以「獨離情執而全知見者,但佛界之一而已」。只有佛,單獨佛全都離開了這情執無明,這情的無明,就是還有分別,佛就全都沒有分別。所以「慈悲等觀」,所有的眾生類,佛陀全都慈悲平等觀,就不分人類或是畜生類,他就是平等觀,所以「全知見」。「離情執而全知見」,這個情執都沒有了,全知、全見,這是佛陀他的慈悲等觀,這只是唯有佛而已,菩薩也還有一點點的分別心。

「佛於此差別之相,悉皆遍照」。

佛於此差別之相
悉皆遍照
了知其等於法界
等於虛空
此為佛之報身
深達實相之智體
本來微妙清淨
此為佛之法身

所以,這個「相」字,佛陀已經沒有這個差別相,佛已經「悉皆遍照」,所有的罪福相,佛完全都了解,所以佛智光明都遍照。「了知其等於法界」,全都是平等法界,「等於虛空」,因為佛陀的智慧等於虛空。「此為佛之報身」。因為佛是這樣修行,所以報在人間,成佛也與天體宇宙合而為一,這是佛的智慧,完全體會,所以叫做「深達實相之智體」。這就是唯有佛陀已經是這樣,這是龍女讚歎佛陀深達罪福相。

所以,「本來微妙清淨,此為佛之法身」。佛的法身,全都本來都是微妙清淨,所有佛的法都是這樣。所以說,「微妙淨法身,具相三十二」。

微妙淨法身
具相三十二:
微妙即報身
淨法即法身
三十二即應身
一語該括
總歎三身
明法身
清淨圓滿

佛的法身相的莊嚴,就是這樣完全清淨了。「微妙」,就是非常的微妙,有三十二相。三十二相就是佛陀的莊嚴相,這包括了「三身」。「三身」就是佛的應化身、清淨法身、圓滿報身,這全都完全清淨,所以得三十二相。

以八十種好
用莊嚴法身:
若據法身
萬德相好以為莊嚴
相好莊嚴:
此為佛之應化身

「以八十種好」,莊嚴其身,這都是一種的描述,佛的莊嚴。「若據法身」,若要以法身來說,「萬德相好」就是莊嚴。因為他修很多的法,所以「萬德莊嚴」,累生世以來,所修的福全都具足,所以「相好莊嚴:這就是佛之應化身。

「所謂微塵相海」,那就是很多,無法去分析,所以這就是簡單收集過來,叫做「以八十種好,用莊嚴法身」。

就是說,他這個「劣應」,已經「點出妙體」。我們普通的人就有劣身,佛現這個應身在人間,與人一樣有這個身體,但是佛的真體,真實,那是很微妙清淨的法身,所以出這個妙體。「本跡不二」,本體是清淨;「跡」,就是(化現)人間。這過去都講說過。所以這完全體會了解。

所謂微塵相海
功德妙身
今言八十
用嚴法身
即於劣應
點出妙體
本跡不二
方契圓宗

龍女她先來對佛這樣讚歎,讚歎佛這段文,就能去體會龍女的智慧。佛陀如何修行?所得的境界是到什麼程度?佛陀的清淨身等等,那個真如本性如何描述出來?三十二相、八十種好,龍女在讚歎佛之中,都完全表達出她的智慧,這是要讓智積菩薩先了解一下。「我龍女,不是像你說的這樣,這麼的鈍根,我也能體會了解,與佛的性是同等。我了解佛的性,就是我已經與佛的性同等了。」這是突然間,龍女這樣出來自我證明。當然,自我證明這個過程,後面很微妙。請大家時時要多用心!


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Explanations by Master Cheng-Yan
Subject: The Dragon Girl Praises the Buddha’s Wisdom (龍女忽現 讚佛實智)
Date: May.17.2018

“Manjusri transformed beings in the dragon palace and returned to Vulture Peak, journeying upon a lotus flower. The dragon girl’s wisdom transcended ordinary logic, and Wisdom Accumulated could not resolve his doubts. The true principles discuss the essence of emptiness. From matters and appearances, one can awaken to the wondrous truth. After the dragon girl praised the Buddha and attained realization, she deeply understood true wisdom which completely illuminates all things.”

We talked about this before, so we should be able to understand it. We should understand that in the Chapter on Seeing the Stupa of Treasures, Many Treasures Buddha came to the human realm in order to listen to the Lotus Sutra. He had vowed that wherever the Lotus Sutra was being taught in the world, His stupa of treasures would appear there. Sakyamuni Buddha, having attained Buddhahood, had been teaching in the world for over 40 years. He had begun openly teaching the Lotus Sutra, so Many Treasures Buddha had by then also come to listen to the Lotus Sutra. He had come to Vulture Peak and had appeared at the assembly at the same time as His stupa, which emerged from the earth and floated in the empty air. The principles contained within this have already been explained before. We all have a Vulture Peak Assembly in our heart. Many Treasures’ stupa had appeared there at the Vulture Peak Assembly, and in that stupa was an ancient Buddha. The present Buddha and the ancient Buddha and now both come together. We already know the meaning of this.

We have all been listening to the Lotus Sutra for such a long time now, so we are able to experience and understand how the Buddha had come for one great cause. He comes again and again to spread the Dharma in the world, to help us understand that everyone intrinsically has Buddha-nature. Our intrinsic nature of True Suchness is the same as the Buddha’s. They are equal! “The mind, the Buddha and sentient beings are no different in nature.” It is just that there is still a great distance between us and the Buddha. The Buddha had become one with the universe. He had returned to the ocean of enlightenment of His intrinsic nature. And what about us ordinary people? Ordinary people have ignorance and defilements. This is what we ordinarily see when Tzu Chi volunteers enter an impoverished home that has rubbish piled high inside of it. A group of Bodhisattvas will go into that house and clean the whole thing for them. The insides are defiled and dirty. If we think back and remember just what those conditions were like, we know as unenlightened beings that the ground of our mind is just like that. We also talked earlier about the burning house. In the Chapter on Parables, it talks about the burning house. The elder had such a luxurious mansion. In this mansion, there were many children. Due to causes and conditions, the elder had to go out. Since the master of the house was not there, that group of children inside kept wanting to play; they became self-indulgent and had degenerated to the point where all they wanted to do was play. All they wanted to do was enjoy themselves. This went on for many years and the mansion fell into disrepair. No one was repairing it. The garbage incessantly piled up, and it became very dirty inside. If we use the principles in this story of the Lotus Sutra to look at the present degeneration of mankind, it is a lot like this.

So, as sentient beings, we keep being reborn lifetime after lifetime in this burning house of the Three Realms, where the turbidities just keep getting more severe. The ignorance and afflictions in people’s hearts keep on increasing, and people’s actions become worse and worse. We create ever more serious ignorance, afflictions and karma. So, because of this, our environment is getting dirtier and dirtier as more and more things continue to accumulate.

This is what is happening in the Three Realms, in this great mansion; our environment is becoming like this. The changes in the environment are due to such a large group of sentient beings taking action out of craving and desire. How sad! What can be done? The elder needed to return home; when he saw how dangerous the burning house was, he quickly cried out, “Quickly! Hurry out of there, children! It is dangerous inside! It is filthy! Come out quickly!” These children would not heed Him. They were not willing to listen or accept what He was telling them. Aren’t we sentient begins just like this now? At times, a group of Bodhisattvas, good-hearted people, will have a case referred to them. When they go to the door of that person’s house, no one will even answer the door. Even if they are let in and get to speak with the person, that person will often ignore them. They tell the person, “We are here to help you clean. We will not only clean your body, we also want to clean up your house as well!” Still they are refused. It takes a very long time for them to establish the relationship, to gain that person’s trust, before this group can enter the house and help clean up the garbage in it.

Isn’t this a similar situation? For Buddhas and Bodhisattvas to get inside of our hearts is not easy either. For us to truly accept the Buddha-Dharma is not all that easy for us either. So, the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas must return to the world lifetime after lifetime sailing on the ship of compassion, coming over and over again, lifetime after lifetime. They must endlessly form affinities with us, must endlessly give of themselves for us, until we gradually accept the Dharma. Only then will we have the conditions to feel joy when we listen to the Buddha-Dharma. We feel joy when listening to the Buddha-Dharma and are willing to accept it, but can we accept it right away? Do we really believe that our Buddha-nature is the same as the Buddha’s? If we believe, then we will put the Buddha’s teachings into practice. This will help us to understand the principles inherent in our Buddha-nature. Because we sentient begins have so many attachments, [the Buddha] helps us bit by bit to continually clear out these attachments and ignorance. This is like when we go into someone’s home to help them clean out all their garbage.
After the garbage has been cleared out, built up inside, on the walls, in the bathroom, are layers and layers of grease and filth; how do we clean these out? These are not things that we can simply carry out of the house. These things take still more effort. These layers of grease and filth that have accumulated over years, over a long time, must be cleaned and scrubbed over and over. We must clean them up layer by layer. So, the way that the Buddha gave of Himself for sentient beings and the way He taught us was like this; bit by bit. He had to help us get rid of our filth and dirt. So, to Hearers and Solitary Realizers [He said], “You are willing to engage in spiritual practice, so you must give up the limited love [of family] in order to embrace great love. You must awaken yourselves as well as others. You must love yourselves as well as others. So, if you are willing to engage in spiritual practice to become a monastic and follow the Buddha, then you must earnestly clean out the filth that is inside of you. Though you have cleared out the inner garbage, there are still greasy filthy things inside you that you must still scrub and wipe away.” This is what Hearers and Solitary Realizers must put effort into trying to achieve. They must clean out the inside of their houses, make sure their houses are completely repaired; only then can they begin. He wanted everyone to understand that all of these material objects are all [temporary] composites. From the roof to the foundation, all of these things are [temporary] composites. This tells us that all of the filthy things we have removed, and even the house itself, are still ultimately only illusory things. This means as long as the house is still there, filth will inevitably enter again. In fact, everyone, everything is empty!

Yet, underlying emptiness is a precious treasury, the treasury of wondrous existence. It is inexhaustible; it is the intrinsic nature inside of us. So, in everyone’s mind, there must be a spiritual training ground where we can always engage in spiritual practice. We should know that in this spiritual training ground, there has always been a Vulture Peak Assembly. The Buddha had by this time already done away with using skillful means. What He now was revealing was the True Dharma of the One Vehicle. What He told us in the past was part of a process and what we are now entering is the true treasury that will enable us to understand. So, not only did the Vulture Peak Assembly manifest, but the stupa of treasures also appeared. Not only did the stupa of treasures appear, but its door has already been opened for us because the Buddha has gathered all of His multiple manifestations. These are the teachings. Let us all recall for a moment how the teachings had all been brought back and gathered together. The Buddha who enters our hearts now is the present Buddha, Sakyamuni. When Sakyamuni Buddha’s teachings enter, it is as if they have come to speak to us, as if pleading to us to open the door to our minds to allow the filth to be cleaned out so that we might recognize the house’s true appearance. It is so magnificent, and so very pure. He also wanted to tell us that that all of these things are [temporary] composites, that what is real is that which is intrinsic within us. So, the ancient and present Buddhas came together. The reason we can discover our original nature of True Suchness is because of the Buddha, because Sakyamuni Buddha had opened and revealed this to us, because we heard the Dharma over many lifetimes.

So, at this time, He gathered His multiple manifestations from the Ten Directions. He did this to help us remember that actually, over the course of many lifetimes we have accepted this Dharma. In this present lifetime, we are all already by the Buddha’s side. Starting as Hearers and Solitary Realizers, we have continued up until now. It is in this section of Chapter on Seeing the Stupa of Treasures that the door to the stupa of treasures is opened to help us understand.

So, it is after this passage that Wisdom Accumulated Bodhisattva began to say, “Since our goal of listening to the Lotus Sutra has already been reached, why don’t we return home now?” This was a process. Although everyone knew, were they able to attain Buddhahood? Sentient beings all have Buddha-nature. This is what the Buddha taught “Sentient beings all have Buddha-nature”. However, attaining Buddhahood, as has been said, takes a very long time, a great many lifetimes. It takes many lifetimes of experiencing sacrifice and hardship to become completely able to actualize the Six Paramitas in all actions. He worried when people heard of the hardships that it would be like in the Chapter on the Parable of the Conjured City, where they gave up half way. This was what He was worried about.

So, the Buddha had Wisdom Accumulated Bodhisattva stay. “Wait just one moment”. Manjusri Bodhisattva was about to return. “I want you to meet Manjusri Bodhisattva.” This was when Manjusri emerged from the dragon palace in the ocean. He had just return from teaching the Lotus Sutra here. He even emerged from the ocean sitting on a thousand-petaled lotus flower. The sentient beings he had transformed were likewise sitting upon precious lotus flowers. The lotus flowers rose in the air as platforms to bring them back to Vulture Peak. They were all in the air. Manjusri Bodhisattva descended from the lotus, greeted the Two Buddhas, then met with Wisdom Accumulated Bodhisattva. Manjusri Bodhisattva then told of how the daughter of the dragon king was only eight years old, but in listening to the Dharma, she was quickly able to accept the wondrous Dharma. Moreover, she had attained the dharani-doors. This is what Wisdom Accumulated Bodhisattva was unable to understand. It was extremely profound the way the two Bodhisattvas manifested like this, the way they began this process.

It was so subtle and wondrous. After returning to Vulture Peak riding upon a precious lotus flower, Manjusri explained how “The dragon girl’s wisdom was extraordinary”, that she was different from ordinary people. So, Wisdom Accumulated Bodhisattva doubted this. This was unimaginable to him Sakyamuni Buddha had spent a very long time giving away His head, eyes, marrow and brain, carrying out ascetic practices. It had taken so long for Him to attain Buddhahood. How could it be possible for the daughter of the dragon king to attain it in such a short time? We talked yesterday about the doubts that he had. Could it be that Sakyamuni Buddha had dull capabilities? Is that why it took Him so long? The dragon girl attained Buddhahood so swiftly; if you compared this with Sakyamuni Buddha, there would be no comparison! So, He had his doubts.

He could not understand how the dragon girl could possible do this. Wisdom Accumulated was then still attached. He was attached to matters and appearances. So, with “the true principles” they had to now “discuss the essence of emptiness”. This was because Wisdom Accumulated Bodhisattva had never really thoroughly penetrated the principle of the “essence of emptiness”. So, “From matters and appearances, one can awaken to these wondrous true principles”. The dragon girl had, from the emptiness of matters and appearances, gone on to comprehend these principles. But Wisdom Accumulated had never been able to realize them; so this why he had his doubts. It was this point. Of course this is such a subtle and mysterious principle; it is so profoundly subtle and mysterious. For the dragon girl to be able to awaken, she had to have her own causes and conditions in the process. So, the dragon girl was certain to have causes and conditions behind this process, and she would certainly come to express this. “After the dragon girl praised the Buddha and attained realization”, she had “deeply understood true wisdom.” Her wisdom shone brightly. So, “The Tathagata uses His unfathomable, impartial, compassionate and wondrous wisdom.”

Since the Tathagata use His unfathomable, impartial, compassionate and wondrous wisdom to engage in calm contemplation, [He sees] the enlightened nature in all sentient beings. He does not see the marks of transgressions of the nine realms.

We should be like the Tathagata, Sakyamuni Buddha. All Buddhas have this inconceivable impartial compassion, this wondrous wisdom. We often speak of “viewing all with equal compassion. This means whatever form sentient beings may take, wherever they are in the Six Realms and Four Forms of Birth, since they all have the Buddha-nature, all already have Sakyamuni Buddha’s “impartial, compassionate and wondrous wisdom”. And the dragon girl? She was the same! It was only through the effort she had made her spiritual practice that she could gain such impartial, compassionate and wondrous wisdom. This require the practice of calm contemplation. We must truly engage in contemplation. The purpose of meditation is to totally purify the mind, just like a big house that has been thoroughly and completely cleaned. Not only had the house been cleaned, we can understand that even the house and the people inside are all “empty”. After we thoroughly clean the house the people living inside are still subject to the laws of nature. Even the house itself is a [temporary] composite. The principle is the same. We must penetrate the intrinsic nature of the essence of emptiness. The principles of this nature of emptiness of True Suchness [are reached through] “calm contemplation]. When the mind is free from all defilement, what remains is our pure and clean nature of True Suchness.

This is by all sentient beings. We all have it. Since this is so, “He does not see the marks of transgressions of the nine realms.” The dragon girl was an animal; Wisdom Accumulated said this. In particular dragons have an arrogant nature. [Their bodies] are not vehicles for spiritual practice. Their appearance resulted from past transgression. It was due to her karma that she had been born as an animal. Humans can accept the Buddha-Dharma and engage in spiritual practice. But it is impossible for animal to engage in spiritual practice! With that bodily from it is impossible to engage in spiritual practice. How could he possibly believe that the dragon girl could accept the subtle and wondrous Dharma so swiftly? So, this is why he had so many doubts.

Thus, the previous passage says, “As I gaze upon the great trichiliocosm, there is nowhere, not even a spot the size of a mustard seed, where the Bodhisattva did not give away his life for the sake of sentient beings.” Only after He had done this “was He able to succeed on the Bodhi-path. I cannot believe that this girl, in the span of an instant, could attain perfect enlightenment. This passage is saying that since Beginningless Time, Sakyamuni has never abandoned any place anywhere. He went everywhere how large a realm might be, or how tiny the space whether the principles of a vast environment or the subtlest principles of living organisms, the Buddha completely understood all of them. So it says, “There is nowhere, not even a spot the size of a mustard seed where the Bodhisattva did not give away his life.” Sakyamuni Buddha did it for sentient beings’ sake. So, in this way He continuously went everywhere, engaging in spiritual practice, giving of Himself to deliver and to transform sentient beings. He was unafraid of hardship. He even gave away His head, eyes, marrow and brain. This was how He gave. Everything was “for the sake of the sentient beings. only after He had done this was He able to succeed on the Bodhi-path. He was always giving away His life like this; only then could He succeed on the Bodhi-path. So, Wisdom Accumulated Bodhisattva said, “I don’t believe this girl, this dragon princess, in the span of an instant, could attain perfect enlightenment. This was unbelievable! In the passage below, Wisdom Accumulated still did not believe, but even before Manjusri Bodhisattva replied, “they had not yet finished their discussion, when they had reached this point in their talk, the dragon king’s daughter suddenly appeared before them. She prostrated out of respect and then withdrew to one side.”
We kept thinking that Manjusri Bodhisattva would reply, but Manjusri Bodhisattva never got the chance to reply never go the chance to reply. “They had not yet finished their discussion. Before their voices had finished ringing out, before Manjusri could even reply, the dragon girl suddenly appeared before them.

They had not yet finished their discussion when the dragon king’s daughter suddenly appeared before them: before Wisdom Accumulated and Manjusri had finished their discussion the dragon girl due to her spiritual power, intended to prove this matter, so she appeared in front of them.

This was “before Wisdom Accumulated and manjusri had finished their discussion. They had not finished spraking when the dragon girl utilized her spiritual powers because Wisdom Accumulated did not believe her. She did not need Manjusri to explain for her. This shows that the dragon girl had spiritual powers too. “I see, Wisdom Accumulated, that you have doubts. You want to ask Manjusri, but Manjusri need not reply, for I will show you myself.” She then immediately used her spiritual power to prove the truth of this matter. “I have achieved true realization of the Buddha’s wondrous principles. I have penetrated all dharana-doors; I retain all teachings and uphold all goodness. I am clear on all teachings of the past, and have already cultivated all goodness. I have all doors of retaining and upholding.” So, in order to prove these matters, she appeared there before them. Thus, she appeared, came before the Buddhas, then “prostrated out of respect”. This was a form of etiquette. The dragon king’s daughter also knew the importance of etiquette. Afterwards, she “withdrew to one side. She expressed her reverence, finished expressing what she needed to express, then withdrew to one side, following the principles very clearly. This happened very suddenly; she “suddenly appeared. This is showing how ”the Tathahata’s true wisdom completely illuminates all things.

Suddenly appeared: This shows how the Tathagata’s true wisdom completely illuminates all things. It means the Tathagata deeply understands transgressions and blessings. The Five Offenses and Ten Evils are transgressions. The Five Precepts and Ten Good Deeds are blessings. transgressions will bring retributions of suffering, whereas blessings will bring fruits of joy. “You will confirm it Yourself. In a moment I will attain Buddhahood.”

This says that “the Tathagata deeply understands transgressions and blessings. The Five Offenses and Ten Evils are known as “transgressions”. “The Five Precepts and Ten Good Deeds” are known as “blessings”. When it comes to transgressions and blessings, transgressions result in retributions of suffering. Creating blessings results in attaining the fruits of joy. This “law of karma” is very subtle and wondrous. The Buddha completely understood this. The dragon girl appeared to help the Buddha clearly prove that good and evil are distinct. So, she said, “You will confirm it Yourself. In a moment I will attain Buddhahood”. She wanted the Buddha to bear witness for her.

So, the next verses describe the dragon girl paying respect to the Buddhas, then withdrawing and sitting to the side. She begins using verse to express herself. What she said in verse was, “[The Buddha] deeply understands the marks of transgressions and blessings and illuminates all throughout the ten directions. His subtle, wondrous and pure Dharma-body is replete with the 32 Marks. The 80 Excellent Characteristics magnificently adorn His Dharma-body”.

The dragon girl got straight to the point. Since Wisdom Accumulated continued to doubt her, the dragon girl wanted to prove herself. She did not need Manjusri explaining for her. She appeared there and conversed with the Buddha, getting straight to the point by saying, “Venerable Buddha! You have the deepest understanding of the karma of blessings and transgressions! I believe the Buddha understands everything. Buddha, Your wisdom illuminates everything universally throughout the ten directions”. The dragon girl first praised the Buddha for “deeply understanding the marks of transgressions and blessings.” This shows too how the dragon girl was also like this herself. She too was subject to the marks of transgressions and blessings. She was asking the Buddha to testify for her. So, “The Buddha’s wisdom illuminates all throughout the ten directions”. She praised the radiance of the Buddha’s wisdom which illuminates the ten directions universally. These “marks of transgressions and blessings refer to the appearances of all karmic retributions throughout the entire Dharma-realm”.

The marks of transgressions and blessings: This refers to the appearances of all karmic retributions throughout the entire Dharma-realm. For example, the Three Evil Realms bear the marks of transgressions, while the human and heavenly realms bear the marks of blessings. Although people within the nine realms differ in the depths [of their transgressions or blessings], none of us can avoid our attachments due to ignorance. Freedom from attachments and comprehensive understanding and views all limited to those in the Buddha-realm.

There are a total of ten Dharma-realms. When you exclude the Buddha-realm, there are nine realms that remain. Because the Buddha already transcended all marks of transgressions and blessings, He was liberated from any of those appearances. He had attained Buddhahood, had fully become one with the universe. So, what is left are the nine realms. The causes and conditions of the nine realms range from Bodhisattvas to those in the Six Realms. In the Six Realms sentient beings are all the same. There are Four Noble Realms and Six Unenlightened Realms. These make up the Ten Realms. The Six Unenlightened Realms are the Six Realms. The Four Noble Realms are the Hearers, the Solitary Realizers, the Bodhisattvas and the Buddhas. The Buddha is a transcendent noble being who has attained supreme, perfect universal enlightenment. This means Bodhisattvas still have a small measure of ignorance remaining, so they remain within the nine realms. Thus, “For example, the Three Evil Realms bear the marks of transgressions.” In the “Three Evil Realms,” sentient beings bear the marks of transgressions. Those in the “human and heaven realms” bear the marks of blessings. The “Three Evil Realms” are the hell, hungry ghost and animal realms. The human and heaven realms include asuras, for asuras are considered to have blessings. Asuras have blessings from practicing goodness; it is just that they never cultivated wisdom. they cultivated blessings, but never wisdom. These are “asuras”. Although they never cultivate wisdom, they cultivate blessings. If one cultivates blessings, one will likewise attain blessed retributions. There are also asuras in the heaven realm. There are asuras in the human realm too. These are people who have blessings but no wisdom. There are people like this in the world too! By analyzing this carefully, we can see there are!

So, we can say that to become a human is considered a blessing, because it is in the human realm that we can listen to the Buddha-Dharma and in the human realm that we can attain Buddhahood. Good and evil both exist within the human realm. If we give rise to thoughts of goodness, then we can cultivate blessings and engage in spiritual practice. This is how the human realm differs from other realms, like the animal realm. So, “People within the nine realms differ in the depths of their transgressions or blessings”. If we cultivate goodness, there is a great depth of goodness to cultivate. If we do evil, there are great depths of evil we can commit. If the evil is deep enough, we will descend to the Three Evil Destinies. If our blessings are profound enough, then we will rise into heaven or the human realm, where we can engage in spiritual practice. So, these nine realms differ in the depth of their transgressions. “None of us can avoid our attachments due to ignorance.” There is ignorance in all of them. The nine realms all have ignorance. Bodhisattvas still have a tiny amount of ignorance which are their dust-like delusions. This is very subtle ignorance, yet we must try to experience it; we must practice! So, “Freedom from attachments and comprehensive understanding and views are limited to those in the Buddha-realm.” The Buddha alone is free from such attachments and ignorance. We still have attachments and ignorance because we still discriminate. The Buddha no longer discriminates; He “views all with impartial compassion”. No matter the kind of sentient being, the Buddha looks upon all equally with compassion. He makes no distinction between human and animal. He shows compassion to all equally. He has “comprehensive understanding and views.” He has attained “freedom from attachments and has comprehensive understanding and views”. He has no more attachments, only comprehensive understanding and views. This is the impartial compassion of the Buddha; only the Buddha can do this. Bodhisattvas still have a small amount of discrimination. “With these different appearances, the Buddha can thoroughly illuminate all.”

With these different appearances, the Buddha can thoroughly illuminate all; He understands that everything is equal in the Dharma-realm and is no different from the empty void. This is the Buddha’s reward-body. The Body of wisdom that deeply understands ultimate reality and is intrinsically subtle, wondrous and pure is the Buddha’s Dharma-body.

So, when it comes to “appearances,” these different appearances no longer exist for the Buddha. “The Buddha thoroughly illuminates all.” When it comes to all appearances of transgressions and blessings, the Buddha understands them all. So, the radiance of the Buddha’s wisdom illuminates everything, “He understands that everything is equal in the Dharma-realm.” Everything in the Dharma-realm is equal; everything is “no different from the empty void.” In the Buddha’s wisdom [He knows] everything is no different from emptiness. “This is the Buddha’s reward-body.” Because of the Buddha’s spiritual practice, He attained the retribution of Buddhahood in the human realm, and became one with the universe. Such was the wisdom of the Buddha that He comprehended everything. So, we talk about “the body of wisdom that deeply understands ultimate reality.” It was only the Buddha who achieved this. This is what the dragon girl praised, the Buddha’s profound understanding of the marks of transgressions and blessings.

“It is intrinsically subtle, wondrous and pure. This is the Buddha’s Dharma-body.” The Buddha’s Dharma-body has always been totally subtle, wondrous and pure. All of the Buddha’s teachings are like this. So it says that. “His subtle, wondrous and pure Dharma-body is replete with the 32 marks.”

His subtle, wondrous and pure Dharma-body is replete with the 32 Marks: What is subtle and wondrous is His reward-body. What is pure Dharma is His Dharma-body. The 32 Marks are His transformation-body. As she spoke, she praised all His three bodies and showed that the Dharma-body is pure and perfect.

The magnificent appearance of the Buddha’s Dharma-body is completely pure like this. It is “subtle and wondrous.” It is extremely subtle and wondrous, with the 32 Marks. This is the Buddha’s magnificent appearance. It includes the “three bodies.” The “three bodies” are the Buddha’s transformation-body, His pure Dharma-body and His perfect and complete reward-body. All of these are totally pure. So, He had attained the 32 Marks and the “80 Excellent Characteristics” which made His body magnificent. All of these describe the Buddha’s magnificence. When we speak of the Dharma-body, we say it is magnificent since it has “10,000 virtues, marks and characteristics.” Because of the many teachings He cultivated, His 10,000 virtues dignified Him. Over the course of many lifetimes, He had become replete in all blessings, so “His marks and characteristics were magnificent.” This was the Buddha’s transformation-body. His body had “an ocean of subtle characteristics.” This means He had a great many, too many to really analyze, so collectively they are called the “The 80 Excellent Characteristics” which “magnificently adorn His Dharma-body.” This meant “His lesser transformation-body” had already “demonstrated this wondrous essence.” As ordinary people, we have a lesser body. The Buddha’s transformation-body was how He manifested in the human realm. He had the same body as other humans, but the true essence of the Buddha, what is real, is His subtle, wondrous and pure Dharma-body. This is His wondrous essence.

So, “The intrinsic and the manifest are one.” The intrinsic essence is pure. The “manifest” was how He appeared in the world. We talked about all of this before so we should all understand this.

His wondrous body of merits and virtues is said to have “an ocean of subtle characteristics.” Now these 80 [Characteristics] dignify His Dharma-body. Through His lesser transformation-body, He demonstrated this wondrous essence. The intrinsic and the manifest are one; only this accords with the perfect teaching.

The dragon girl first praised the Buddha. She praised the Buddha in this passage. Thus we can realize the wisdom of the dragon girl. How did the Buddha engage in spiritual practice? What level of state did He attain? How do we describe the purity of His mind, or His nature of True Suchness? The dragon girl’s praise of the Buddha’s 32 Marks and 80 Characteristics demonstrated the extent of her wisdom. This was to first help Wisdom Accumulated Bodhisattva understand. “I, the dragon girl, am not as limited in capabilities as you think. I have achieved realization and understanding. My nature is equal to the Buddha’s. I understand the Buddha’s nature and my nature is already the same as the Buddha’s.” This happened suddenly. The dragon girl appeared to prove herself. Of course, in the process of proving herself, what happened after was very wondrous. So, everyone, please always be mindful!

(Source: Da Ai TV – Wisdom at Dawn program – Explanation by Master Chen-Yen)
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