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 20180713《靜思妙蓮華》四種不近 隨宜說法 (第1391集) (法華經·安樂行品第十四)

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發表主題: 20180713《靜思妙蓮華》四種不近 隨宜說法 (第1391集) (法華經·安樂行品第十四)   周五 7月 13, 2018 11:16 am

20180713《靜思妙蓮華》四種不近 隨宜說法 (第1391集) (法華經·安樂行品第十四)

⊙契理入道者,則藉教理行悟入,深信含識眾生同一真如本性,但為客塵妄想所覆不能顯了,若捨妄歸真則聖凡同等無異。
⊙含識:含有心識者,即有情心依止於色,名為含識,總攝六道有情之眾生。入如來室以大慈悲攝諸含識。
⊙「不親近諸外道梵志、尼犍子等,及造世俗文筆、讚詠外書,及路伽耶陀、逆路伽耶陀者。」《法華經安樂行品第十四》
⊙「亦不親近諸有凶戲、相叉相撲,及那羅等種種變現之戲;又不親近旃陀羅、及畜豬羊雞狗。」《法華經安樂行品第十四》

⊙亦不親近諸有凶戲、相叉相撲:又亦勿近兇險戲者,共相廝撲,皆兇惡遊戲之事。
⊙及那羅等:那羅:此云力士,角力戲亦是設筋力戲也。彩畫其身,變現幻術,蓋優伶之類。
⊙種種變現之戲:應是世間粧飾面首,變諸異相,若觀戲者,執假為真,隨愛恨入迷,令心捶蕩。
⊙又不親近旃陀羅、及畜豬羊雞狗:旃陀羅:此云屠業買賣介紹殺害生物。又畜此等物,無非為殺。
⊙旃陀羅:為古印度四巨姓外之一,號稱劣種人,執諸賤業。畜豬羊等及畋獵漁捕者,為造惡業以資生活之人。
⊙近之則增長惡緣,故不當親近,此應離惡業緣者。言此種種遊戲,能敗壞善業,擾亂心性,故菩薩不應親近,此應離壞亂緣者又一也。
⊙「畋獵漁捕諸惡律儀。如是人等,或時來者,則為說法,無所希望。」《法華經安樂行品第十四》
⊙畋獵漁捕諸惡律儀:獵獸捕魚等是惡類,狎損己道心。應離諸不善殺害之法,名惡律儀。
⊙如是人等,或時來者:如上種種諸惡人輩,或時之間善心來者。
⊙則為說法,無所希望:則可與之說於正法,不可有所希望之心。
⊙以上諸外道,皆為互相諍論鬥議之法。由其具有種種惡知見,自執以為是。故於平等真如常住普遍之真理永不相應,親近則有妨於正見,此應離惡見緣者又一也。
⊙以上四種,菩薩但不應與之親近而已,並非拒不與言。若有來者,亦應隨宜說法,而不希望其有所利養與受其讚歎也。

【證嚴上人開示】
契理入道者,則藉教理行悟入,深信含識眾生同一真如本性,但為客塵妄想所覆不能顯了,若捨妄歸真則聖凡同等無異。

契理入道者
則藉教理行悟入
深信含識眾生
同一真如本性
但為客塵妄想所覆
不能顯了
若捨妄歸真
則聖凡同等無異

用心!我們契理,那就是要契合,佛陀所教育的道理;道理無處不在,佛陀為我們指方向,讓我們能夠體會道理,就在我們的日常生活中,接觸,無不都是道理,只要我們很用心、細心去體會,自然我們就能夠了解,道理到處都是,觸處無不都是理的存在。我向大家說話,是聲音出去:大家聽我說話,是耳根吸收。聲塵來自於舌、喉的根接觸,所以有了聲音.聲音,你是看不到,卻也是有它的,很細膩的道理存在。出自我的口中,從喉嚨、聲帶,要開口、要動舌,聲音的理,這個原理,就這樣出去了;出去,它就是看不到,看不到,才能很多人接收到,不是一個人,是很多人。

利用了聲理,聲一定有它的道理,再透過科技,不是只有我們的範圍人人聽到,我們還傳到全球任何一個國家,只要他動一個手指,那個樞鈕按下去,開始了,開機了,那個地方不只聽到聲音,也看到人影。這就是理,這道理無形、無影,卻是我們能接受得到,是它的聲音,這是多微妙,佛陀就是要跟我們說,道理無處不在,就是我們沒有去用心,隨手拿起來,「這個是筆」。也是用種種物質去合成起來。這支筆能夠發揮它很多的功能,一切的道理從這支筆尖,能寫出了我想要說的話,能夠留下來很長久的文字,這就是道理。我們觸處無不都是理。看不到,但是要用心。

所以,「契理」,我們的心就要和道理,要時時契合著,佛陀這樣告訴我們,用心是我們自己,自己要用心。眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意,日常所接觸到的,外面的五塵、五根去接觸到,最後都是進來在識,我們的感覺,要用心去將它感覺出來。這是「契理入道者,則藉教理行悟入心」,藉著佛陀的教育原理,我們去身體力行,去體悟這些道理。舉一反三,跟你說聲音的原理是這樣,你們要能夠體會出。而眼根的道理也是同樣這樣。這道理就是能夠開闊普遍。剛才說有形的,那就是一項就對著一項。無形的理,就是能夠大家都分享得到;一個聲音,不是一個人聽,就是很多人聽得到;不是近處聽,遠處也聽得到。科技,同樣,我們的眼根,我人坐在這裡,不是一個人看到,也是同樣這麼多人,看到,同時看到,現在不是大家看到,透過科技,有聽到聲音的地方,就有看見人影。所以,這就是道理,我們要藉有形,來成就無形的道理,因為有形的合成了,也是一樣從無形的道理,去將它合成起來。

無形的道理,合成了這麼多的高科技,所以它就能夠很普遍,這就是自然的「色」,是我們對面看得到,經過了再合成,就變成了普遍天下,都是傳得到、看得到,這全都是「藉教理行悟入」,要藉了解這個原理,才來集合種種去研究;研究出來再來將它會合起來,形成了能夠再發揮,更大更大的功能。這就是我們要好好用心,理要去體會,物理、心理、生理等等,「三理四相」,可以發揮到這麼大的良能。所以,我們要用心「行悟入」,身體力行,去用心,去體會,我們才有辦法入心來,去細細地,這樣很細膩去用在,我們日常生活中。我們這些道理,入在我們生活裡,這要如何能夠進來,那就是要深信,一定要深信。我們若不深信,不深信我們就沒有辦法,把這個道理放在心裡,我們要相信。所以,「深信含識眾生,同一真如本性」。佛陀教育,不只是跟我們說物理而已,還為我們解釋生理,還為我們解釋心理,這是佛陀很了不起的教育,所以,我們要好好接受。

「含識」,所有一切有情眾生,無不都是有「含識」;含識的意思,就是「含有心識者」,就是「有情心依止於色」。

含識:
含有心識者
即有情心依止於色
名為含識
總攝六道
有情之眾生
入如來室
以大慈悲攝諸含識

所有的有情,哪怕一隻螞蟻,螞蟻雖小,你看牠們在走路的時候,很有次序,螞蟻排列在走路,前後次序。用心看牠,牠們的方向不會脫散了,而我們,若稍微動一下牠們,看起來,這些螞蟻就很惶恐,就亂了隊伍了。牠們亂了隊伍,你再靜靜看牠,牠們會再來會合,整隊再度整裝出發。有情,小小的生命是這樣!所以有情的心,依止於色,螞蟻雖小隻,牠有情,牠有意識。

所以,我們這個意識,到底是大還是小呢?象,同樣是動物,這麼大隻的象,牠有幾個意識?同樣也是一個意識;螞蟻那麼小隻,牠是不是有意識?同樣牠有意識。所以,這個意識無形、無體,大小自如,總是隨順眾生的業力。意識,這個含識,所有的眾生都有,所以我們要尊重,在生活中要尊重,我們六根,最重要的就是意,意識;心的意識,人的造作,結果就是業的種子,隨著你的業緣,在六道中隨業這樣去,同樣都是依那個身形而生。所以,我們要用心,要深信。所以,「名為含識」,因為「有情心依止於色」。看他在什麼樣的「道」出生?人道,我們就是人的身體,這叫做「色身」。象、螞蟻,就是一樣,牠依止牠的色而生活,大小,同樣就是識。

所以,這是,「總攝六道有情之眾生」,這叫做「含識」,「含識」就是,稱六道眾生,所有的都是有心、有識。所以,螞蟻很安定在走路,你稍微碰牠一下,地板將它打一下,自然牠們就會散了,看牠們很惶恐這樣散了。但是,你靜靜再看牠,牠們自己靜下來,牠們就自己再整隊,繼續往那個方向走。這是真實的道理,眾生都是有這樣的含識。所以,「入如來室,以大慈悲攝諸含識」。佛陀教育我們培養大慈悲心,好好要將眾生的含識,我們要用大慈悲,來呵護這些眾生,呵護著他,我們這才是真正在學佛的,心的過程,所以,我們要深信佛陀的教育,「含識眾生,同一真如本性」,同樣,這些眾生,不論是大象、螞蟻,同樣都有真如本性,何況說其他的生物呢?所有一切的生物,無不都有同一真如本性,一切的眾生。

「但為客塵妄想所覆,不能顯了」。這個「含識」,已經在各不同的色身,都有這個含識;煩惱無明,這叫做「客塵」。因為在境界不同,人有人的身根;虎有虎的身根,人能夠了解一切,能夠學很多、享受很多;虎就是因為業,所以,虎、豹因為業,雖然是很兇猛,卻是牠就是隔離在那種林間,或者是在人間,就是動物園的裡面,這就是牠的業。這樣的依報、正報。「客塵」,牠的妄想所造作煩惱無明,所以,成就了這樣「六道」,各不相同的環境、感受。所以這全都是因為妄想、感受,造成了各不相同。我們的身形,做人,人的形;做畜生,畜生的形;造惡就是在地獄中,這……等等,餓鬼,苦偏多了。所以,「所覆不能顯了」。這個心識,就是因為很多無明煩惱覆蔽,我們的真如本性,沒辦法這樣呈現出來,這就是我們煩惱無明覆蔽著它。

這種種子,業力種子,從六根、六塵,外面所緣的境,接受進來我們的意識,才開始去分析造作。它憑著這個習氣,第六識接來之後去分析,分析之後,「這我要,是我要擁有的,所以,我應該要去貪、要去取、要去奪等等。」就再發射給前面的五根去造作,五根造作,所以得來的成果那就是「識」;再回歸回來,納入第八識。這也是常常和大家說過了。所以這就是我們那個「妄」,不清楚,才會去造作這麼多的業,惹來這麼多的無明,重重無明掩蓋起來,我們的真如本性,我們愈來就是愈沒辦法顯現;唯有聽法,了解了,一層一層,也能夠守戒,防非止惡。過去的已成了,我們就不要再放著,既往不咎。未來呢?我們要防非止惡,我們要「改往」,改過去的,要注意在未來,若能夠這樣,也是能將無明一層一層去除,保護好它,不要再卡進來,不要再染著進來,這樣我們就會愈來愈清楚。

所以「若捨妄歸真」,則凡聖同等,我們妄念若這樣過了,把它去除了,回歸回來,慢慢接觸到我們的真如本性,那就是識清淨了,一切明瞭、清楚了,就不會再妄作,這樣我們自然就去透徹了解了,了解聖人、凡夫其實沒有差別。佛陀說,「心、佛、眾生三無差別」,就是沒有差別,我們要很用心,慈悲平等觀,我們要用慈悲心。所以我們所有入如來室、著如來衣,諸法空為座,這「一心」、「三軌」、「四忍」,我們要時時用在日常生活中。

來,來看看前面的經文:「不親近諸外道梵志、尼犍子等,及造世俗文筆、讚詠外書,及路伽耶陀、逆路伽耶陀者。」

不親近諸外道
梵志 尼犍子等
及造世俗文筆
讚詠外書
及路伽耶陀
逆路伽耶陀者
《法華經安樂行品第十四》

我們要很謹慎,思考我們到底懂多少呢?我們若是道心沒有很堅固,雖然我們要去度眾生,我們的力量若還不夠,反被眾生度,所以我們就不親近;不是排斥,是不親近,不要去靠近,不可投入。你若無法說服別人,你就會被說服去。所以佛陀為了要保護,初發心者的道心,就是這樣交代我們,「不親近諸外道梵志」,哪怕外道也有出家修行,但是所修的行,那就是和佛法不同,有偏了。或者是「尼犍子等,及造世俗文筆」,一些世俗的書。

修行時間不夠,哪有辦法看其他那麼多的,世間有很多的文筆,很多的書籍,真的很多,尤其是外道的書籍。或者是讚歎,或者是……等等,很多的論著,「路伽耶陀、逆路伽耶陀」,那就是他們外道教,有很多的論著,有很多書,這麼多的道理,有的是順人間世俗的欲情,這樣在論;有的是反對,所以「逆路伽耶陀者」。同樣的文字,不一樣的看法。這全都是有,費很多口舌在那裡論著,這都是浪費時間,而且會影響我們的心念。

下面接下來這段文再說:「亦不親近諸有凶戲、相叉相撲,及那羅等種種變現之戲;又不親近旃陀羅、及畜豬羊雞狗。」

亦不親近
諸有凶戲
相叉相撲
及那羅等
種種變現之戲
又不親近旃陀羅
及畜豬羊雞狗
《法華經安樂行品第十四》

這我們也是一樣要很注意,因為我們的道心還沒有堅定,我們盡量就是要保護道心慧命,所以「不親近諸有凶戲」。尤其是很多的在玩的戲,相扠相撲等等,這有比較激烈,也有什麼吞火團,吞火丸,什麼吞刀劍等等,這實在是很危險,不可去學,不可親近,若不小心會傷害。

亦不親近
諸有凶戲
相叉相撲:
又亦勿近兇險戲者
共相廝撲
皆兇惡遊戲之事

反正從事這些有危險的事情,就不要學。互相打撲,這樣摔、這樣打,就是不要去學,而且也不要為了這樣去玩。有的人要看什麼擂臺等等,很多,在那個地方真的是很危險。若去學,也會傷身,這都是兇惡遊戲的事情。

及那羅等:
那羅
此云力士
角力戲
亦是設筋力戲也
彩畫其身
變現幻術
蓋優伶之類

「及那羅等」,「那羅」就是力士,就是很有力,手握起來,力氣都出來了,或者是筋力都很足夠。甚至畫龍刺鳳,或者是有很多變現的魔術等等。「優伶之類」,「優」,日本都叫做「俳優」,這叫做「明星」,我們一般的人說追什麼星,追歌星、追明星,同樣的道理。「優」就是優人,就是藝人,當然我們盡量,要好好的,在人間的事,若只迷在看戲,迷在去學戲等等,這恐怕會對自己的道心,也會有偏差。

不過,現在看到,我們在「高僧傳」,唐美雲這回要拍空海法師,也去到日本!日本下霜雪凍,看起來真正是用道心,在走這條路。她去到高野山,去到這個道場,空海法師的道場,那個地方本來都不能讓人上去,不能讓人進去,去和他說、交涉,這就是很認真,要拍出了空海的精神。所以日本這個古蹟的寺院,為我們大愛(臺),啟開了這道門,在空海所住的,不論是他的寮房,他的書房,他修行的地方,在那個地方,讓她唐美雲,這樣在那個地方自由拍這些戲。他那裡的環境,他那裡修行的方式,她走在它那個堂,空海紀念的地方,那是平時都是管理森嚴,不能上去。

她就說:「我要走到上面去。」那些人就說:「那個地方妳就不能去。」她說:「我現在是空海呢!」戲裝下去,真的是空海!去講究空海的時代,他穿著的是什麼衣服,她的扮相起來,真的就是以空海的道相,顯在高野山,空海紀念堂上。她就這樣向他們說:「我現在就是空海。」在那個地方這樣安然自在拍戲。這是很用心,這不是戲,我一直說這不是戲,這是把我們歷代的高僧,他們的精神理念,修行的過程,再讓它復活起來,這也就是法。要傳法,每一個宗門都有他傳法的宗人。所以「真言宗」是如何來,來日本?空海就是。所以,他的生活、他的歷史,這樣經過寫過、編劇,我就說:「不能杜撰。」所以他們很細膩地去寫。我說:「這些劇本,要寫得像是寫空海的論文,拍起來的這個空海傳記,就是一齣一齣有聲、有影,這樣將它傳下去,又有他的論文可以考據。這是最好的見證。」同樣的道理,戲,是什麼樣的戲,我們要很了解。人生如戲,戲如人生,我們不可迷。

種種變現之戲
應是世間粧飾面首
變諸異相
若觀戲者
執假為真
隨愛恨入迷
令心捶蕩

世間這個「種種變現之戲」,一個人可以扮演很多人,這就是變現。「粧飾面首」,就是這樣,看我要演什麼人,裝成什麼人,就是「變諸異相」。不同的人,不同的名字,不同的裝扮。「若觀戲者」,有的人這樣在變現,但是有的人就是迷下去,杜撰的,一些戲劇不就是?但是慈濟呢?不論是八點檔,不論是,都有人可以作見證。不只是演這個人,這個人見證,他的周圍朋友、親戚,也可以作見證。所以在我們人文的志業,是「返真」,返過來,真;也要傳,為時代作見證,為人間寫歷史,是最真的。這就是我們分秒不空過,時間,每一個時間,所講出來的話都是真實的,這就是「報真導正」,不是虛幻的戲。但是有的戲,亂了人心。「若觀戲者,執假為真」,看戲的人將假的當成真的,有的在戲臺下看戲,看戲臺上在演,壞人是壞得那樣,被人欺負的人,是這樣欺負得那樣。

後母在虐待前妻的孩子時,這樣的戲,過去我年輕,比較年幼的時候,就戲臺上在演戲,底下的觀眾抱不平,在樓下衝到臺上去要打人,這就是將假當作真,這是真實的。臺上在哭,臺下也哭得那樣;臺上在笑,下面也同樣在笑;氣憤起來,他也會衝上臺要去打人。「路見不平,氣死閒人」就是這樣,這就是被迷去了。這以假,「執假為真,隨愛恨入迷」。隨愛隨恨,愛恨情仇,就是這樣在纏,所以我們要很謹慎。

「又不親近旃陀羅,及畜豬羊雞狗」。

又不親近旃陀羅
及畜豬羊雞狗:
旃陀羅
此云屠業買賣
介紹殺害生物
又畜此等物
無非為殺

我們要很謹慎,不要有這樣的形態。這就是在屠業,又在殺業做買賣介紹,讓這些生靈,這樣被受買賣、被殺害。有的就是畜養這些東西,供應人殺、供應人吃,盡量不要去靠近;不只是不要去靠近,不要去做,就是我們要很謹慎。

旃陀羅:為古印度
四巨姓外之一
號稱劣種人
執諸賤業
畜豬羊等
及畋獵漁捕者
為造惡業
以資生活之人

「旃陀羅」,印度「四姓階級」分得很清楚,他們有四大種姓,但是「旃陀羅」是被排斥,因為他所執的行業,所以才叫做劣種人。就是在做這些畜養豬羊等等,及打獵、捕魚等等,這就是造惡業,來靠這樣生活。「近則增長惡緣,故不當親近」。這樣殺,或者買賣,或者飼養,或者打獵等等,這都是和眾生結了很多的惡緣,所以我們不要去親近。

近之則增長惡緣
故不當親近
此應離惡業緣者
言此種種遊戲
能敗壞善業
擾亂心性
故菩薩不應親近
此應離壞亂緣者
又一也

「此應離惡業緣者」,不要去親近,就是能離開這個惡業的緣,就是不要去做,也不要在那個地方交結,不要。不只是不要殺,也不要去買賣;不要介紹買賣,又不要去養,這些生靈都是有牠自然的生態。

「言此種種遊戲,能敗壞善業」。 這些遊戲容易敗壞善業,所以「擾亂心性」。「故菩薩不應親近,此應離壞亂緣」,其中的一項,所以我們要很注意。

接下來再說:「畋獵漁捕諸惡律儀。如是人等,或時來者,則為說法,無所希望。」

畋獵漁捕諸惡律儀
如是人等
或時來者
則為說法
無所希望
《法華經安樂行品第十四》

有這樣在打獵或是抓魚等等,這些造作惡的事情,這是都歸於惡的一類,所以這樣親近,是會損我們的道心。人家若在屠宰場,你一天到晚都在那裡出入,這樣會損害我們的道心。「狎損己道心」,親近就會損害我們的道心。

畋獵漁捕
諸惡律儀:
獵獸捕魚等是惡類
狎損己道心
應離諸不善
殺害之法
名惡律儀

所以「應諸不善殺害之法」,會殺害眾生的法,我們應該要避離。「名惡律儀」。不善的殺業,叫做「惡律儀」,我們要避開,不要在那個地方。

如是人等
或時來者:
如上種種諸惡人輩
或時之間善心來者

所以,「如是人等,或時來者」。這些人若是有人來,就是這種種這些人,就是前面所說的這些人,他們若是自己自動來。他是抱著善心來,有這樣,我們就是,我們「則為說法,無所希望」。

則為說法
無所希望:
則可與之說於正法
不可有所希望之心

他來了,他自己來,我們就和他說法。他有善心,雖然從事這些工作,他是為生活,他以為這也是生活的行業,所以他不知道,他有心,既來了,我們就要好好用心來為他說法。所說的是正法,但是不要抱什麼樣希望的心,我們就是盡心來為他說,但是你要叫他馬上就改,改行有困難。我們就耐心,讓他了解道理,他就會慢慢會改過來。我們也不要很積極一直去找,不要逼他,這樣心會煩。所以,道理讓他知道,慢慢讓他了解,一步一步自己放棄,棄掉了惡業,他就「善業」來。所以,我們還要為他說法,並不是排斥、放棄,只是不要親近,不用自己主動去,也不要在那個地方這樣進出。

以上諸外道
皆為互相諍論
鬥議之法
由其具有
種種惡知見
自執以為是
故於平等真如
常住普遍之真理
永不相應
親近則有妨於正見
此應離惡見緣者
又一也

所以,以上種種外道,「皆為互相諍論」。「路伽耶陀」、「逆路伽耶陀」,這全都是這個外道,九十多種,互相在爭論。前面所說的這個爭鬥的道理,所以,宗教應該都是和平,為了觀念不同,就彼此在那裡起爭端,這是前面的不親近外道。所以,「由其具有種種惡知見」,所以「自執以為是」。彼此的爭端,這全都是自以為是。

所以,「故於平等真如,常住普遍之真理永不相應」。這些外道,他們對這個「平等真如常住」,這個道理,他就是因為他在外道,全都在外道教的理論,所以他不會來接受,不會來接受真正平等,真如常住這個道理,因為這樣,「永不相應」。因為他有很多道理,他就是不會來接受。所以,「親近則有妨於正見」。我們若一直想要將他度過來,我們若這樣很勉強,你反為被度哦!「親近則有妨於正見」,我們也會受影響,明明我們是正見,也會受他這個論議;很多的論議,我們讓他偏引過去,所以還是不要去接近。所以,此應離惡見緣又一項。

以上四種
菩薩但不應
與之親近而已
並非拒不與言
若有來者
亦應隨宜說法
而不希望
其有所利養
與受其讚歎也

再來就是說,「以上四種,菩薩不應與之親近而已」。是叫做我們不要去親近;因緣不成熟,我們的道力不夠,我們不要自不量力說:「我們要去度人」。怕我們道心不堅定會受影響,所以我們就是不要去親近而已。「並非拒不與言」,不是他們要來和我們說話,我們就是不要理人,不是。他的行業,我們不要去好奇,也不要去想:我要將你度過來。不可。你度人不過來,你會被人度過去。所以,「亦應隨宜說法」。有那個因緣,我們就是我們知道的,這樣和他說一下,點到為止。「而不希望其有所利養,與受其讚歎」。也不要想:我們這樣說,他就能夠接受,或者是有什麼樣的利養,這都不用;也不用這樣受甚讚歎。我們就是要用正知、正見,這是我們要用心。

前面已經有四種,一,不親近國王、王子、大臣等;第二,不親近外道梵志;第三、不親近諸兇戲、相撲等等;第四,就是不親近畋獵諸惡,這就是以上四種惡的。真的是要用心去體會,佛法是這麼的微細,這麼的透徹了解。佛陀用心來引導我們,只要我們用心去體會,無不都是真理在眼前。契理入道,就是藉佛陀所開示的道理,我們好好去體會。現在的科技證明現在的佛法,這就是時間如何流長,道理永遠存在,在及時的這個時候。

所以,我們要真正的用心,不要只是受「客塵」覆蔽,我們的環境來迷惑我們。心要顧好,道心、慧命顧好,我們的力量還不夠,不要自不量力,想說我們也要去度人,不可。我們還是要老實修行,道理很透徹,道心很堅固,不受影響,我們才能夠想要去如何度人。所以,要請大家時時多用心!

【附註】:〔客塵〕
又作客塵煩惱。即煩惱之義,此係相對於「自性清淨」一詞而立者。所謂煩惱,本非心性固有之物,乃因迷理而起,故稱為客;又以煩惱能污染吾人之心性,猶如塵埃之染污萬物,故稱為塵。(《佛光大辭典》)
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發表主題: 回復: 20180713《靜思妙蓮華》四種不近 隨宜說法 (第1391集) (法華經·安樂行品第十四)   周五 8月 10, 2018 2:55 pm

Explanations by Master Cheng-Yan
Subject: Teaching the Dharma in Suitable Ways (四種不近 隨宜說法)
Date: July.13.2018

“Resonating with the principles to enter the path means to make use of teachings and principles to practice, realize and enter. We must have deep faith that sentient beings with consciousness all share the same intrinsic nature of True Suchness. It is just that [our nature] is covered by visiting dust and delusions, so we are unable to reveal it. If we can cast aside our delusions and return to the True, then noble and ordinary beings will be equal with no difference.”

We must be mindful. “Resonating with the principles” means following the principles taught by the Buddha. The principles are everywhere. The Buddha pointed out the direction for us, enabling us to experience the principles that are found in our own daily living. Everything we encounter [contains] principles. As long as we can mindfully and meticulously experience this, we will naturally understand that the principles are everywhere. Everything we encounter contains principles. When I speak to you all with my voice, you listen to my words with your ears. The sound of my voice comes from the interaction between my tongue and my throat; this is how the sound is produced. Sound is something we cannot see, but it contains its own very subtle and intricate principles. It comes from my mouth, from my throat and vocal cords. When we open our mouth and move our tongue, our voice is produced from this source according to the principles of sound. When it is produced, we are unable to see it. Yet many people can receive this intangible sound, not just one person but many. By using the [inherent] principles of sound, through the application of technology, not only can the people around me hear it, but it can be spread to any country in the world. They only need to move a finger and press a button to turn on the [computer], and they can not only hear my voice but also see my image.

This is a matter of principles. These principles are intangible and formless, but what we can receive through them is this sound. This is so wondrous! The Buddha told us that the principles are everywhere; it is just that we are not mindful of them. We can casually pick something up, a “pen” for instance. This pen was made by combining many materials. This pen can serve many functions. With the tip of this pen, all principles that I wish to convey can be written down, and the words can remain for a very long time. These are principles. Everything we encounter contains principles. Although we cannot see them, we must be mindful.

This is “resonating with the principles.” Our minds must always resonate with the principles. This was what the Buddha told us. Being mindful depends on us; it is we who must be mindful. Our eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and mind [let us] experience everything in our daily living. As our Five Roots encounter the external Five Dusts, in the end it all enters our consciousness. We must be mindful in experiencing all of this. This is “resonating with the principles to enter the path.” We make use of teachings and principles to practice, realize and take [the Dharma] to heart. We make use of the Buddha’s teachings and principles to take action and awaken to these principles. “From one corner, we know the other three.” When I tell you about the principles of sound, you will be able to comprehend that the principles for sight are the same. These principles can be extended universally. Earlier we talked about tangible things. In that case, those things correspond one to one. As for intangible principles, they can be shared among everyone. It is not just one person who can hear my voice; many people are able to listen to it, whether they are near or far. In the same way, technology [enables] our eye root [to see far]. As I sit here, it is not just one person who sees me; likewise, many people can see me, all at the same time. Can’t everyone see me now? Through technology, wherever you can hear my voice, you can also see my image. So, this [comes about] through principles. We must use material things to bring intangible principles to fruition, just as the creation of material things is accomplished through intangible principles. Through intangible principles, so many advance technologies have been developed. Thus, they have been able to become widespread.

These are the natural “forms” that we are able to see in front of us. Once they are brought together [with technology], we can spread this everywhere in the world so everyone can see it. This requires us to “make use of the teachings and principles to practice, realize and enter.” By understanding these principles, we can gather and research all kinds of things, and with these we can develop [new technology]. With the technologies we create, we can exercise even greater abilities. So, we must be earnestly mindful. We must comprehend the principles, whether the principles of matter, life or the mind. Through the Three Principles and Four States, we can exercise such great potential. So, we must mindfully “practice, realize and enter” [these principles].

We must put them into practice, mindfully [contemplate] and experience them in order to take them to heart and meticulously apply them in every aspect of our daily living. How can we make these principles part of our everyday living? This requires deep faith. We absolutely need to deeply believe in them. If we do not deeply believe in them, then there will be no way we can retain these principles in our minds. So, we must have faith. “We must have deep faith that sentient beings with consciousness all share the same intrinsic nature of True Suchness.”

The Buddha’s teachings are not just about the principles of matter. He also explains the principles of life and of the mind. These are truly amazing teachings from the Buddha. So, we must earnestly accept them. As for “beings with consciousness,” all sentient beings in the Six Realms are “beings with consciousness”. “Beings with consciousness refers to all beings with mind-consciousness. They have minds with feelings and rely on form.”

Beings with consciousness: This refers to all beings with mind-consciousness. They have minds with feelings and rely on form. They are called beings with consciousness. This encompasses all sentient begins of the Six Realms.
So, we must enter the Tathagata’s room and embrace all conscious beings with great compassion.

“All sentient begins” even [includes] ants. Even though ants are very small, we can see that when they walk, they are very orderly. When ants walk, they follow one after the other. If we mindfully watch them, we see they do not lose their direction, but if we touch them even briefly, they become terrified and their order is disrupted. After their order is disrupted, if we quietly observe them again, they will again return to their line and begin to walk in order again. Sentient beings, even small ones, are like this. So, “They have [feelings] and rely on form.” Although the ants are small, they have feelings and consciousness. So, is our consciousness great or small?

An elephant is also a kind of animal. Elephants are so big; how many-consciousnesses do they have? They also have just one mind-consciousness. Ant are so small in size; do they have a mind-consciousness? They too have this consciousness. So, our consciousness is intangible and without form. It is free from [categories like] great or small. It follows sentient begins’ karmic forces. This consciousness in “beings with consciousness” is something all sentient begins have. So, in our daily living we must respect [all sentient begins].

Among our Six Roots the most important one is our mind, our mind-consciousness. This is the consciousness of our minds. Our actions result in seeds of karma. Following our karmic conditions, we are born into the Six Realms. We likewise rely on a bodily form to be born. Thus, we must be mindfully and have deep faith. So, “They are called [beings] with consciousness. They have minds with feelings and rely on form.” That depends on what realm they are born in. In the human realm, we will be born with a human body. This is the “physical body”. Elephants and ants both rely on their form in how they live. Whether big or small, they all have consciousness. So, “this encompasses all sentient begins of the Six Realms.” They are “beings with consciousness”.

“Beings with consciousness” includes all sentient beings of the Six Realms. They all have feelings and consciousness. So, ants may walk very calmly, but if we briefly touch them or if we strike the floor, they will scatter. We can see that they are scared from how they run. However, if we continue to watch them quietly, they will calm themselves down and line up to continue walking along their path. These are true principles. Sentient beings all have consciousness like this.

“So, we must enter the Tathagata’s room and embrace all conscious beings with great compassion.” The Buddha taught us to cultivate great compassion and [protect] conscious sentient begins. With great compassion, we should safeguard all these sentient beings. This is the process by which we truly learn the Buddha-Dharma. So, we must have deep faith in the Buddha’s teachings. “Sentient begins with consciousness all share the same intrinsic nature of True Suchness.”

In the same way, these sentient begins, whether ants or elephants, all have this nature of True Suchness, not to mention other living beings. All living beings have the same nature of True Suchness. [This is true for] all sentient begins.

“It is just that [our nature] is covered by visiting dust and delusion, so we are unable to reveal it.” These “beings with consciousness” all have different physical bodies, but they all have consciousness.

Afflictions and ignorance are “visiting dust”. Since we are in different realms, humans have their human bodies and tigers have their tiger-bodies. Humans are able to understand many things, learn many things and enjoy many things. Because of their karma, though tigers and panthers are very ferocious, they are isolated in the woods. Or they may be in the human world but caged at the zoo. This is due to their karma. These are their circumstantial and direct retributions. This “visiting dust” cause them to create afflictions and ignorance.

So, in the Six Realms, this leads to different begins having different environments and experiences. This is all because of delusions and feelings which creates all these different types of bodily forms. If we are born human, we have a human form, [just as] those born as animals have animal forms. If we commit evil deeds, we will end up in hell or become hungry ghosts or so on. There is so much suffering [in those places]. So, “We are unable to reveal it”. In our mind, because we have many afflictions and ignorance, we are unable to display our nature of Ture Suchness. This is because our afflictions and ignorance cover it over. These seeds of karma come from the Six Roots and Six Dusts. When we bring the external environment into our mind-consciousness, we begin to analyze it and create [karma]. Due to our habitual tendencies, after it enters our sixth consciousness, we begin to analyze it. After analyzing it, [we think], “I desire this; I want to have this. So, I must seek to possess it, I want to take it, I want to steal it” and so on. Then we will direct our Five Roots to take action. Our Five Roots take action, and the results are [stored in] our consciousness. They all return to our eighth consciousness. This is something we often talk about. So, these are our delusions; because we cannot see clearly, we give rise to so much karma and stir up so much ignorance. Layer after layer of ignorance covers us, so we become less and less able to reveal our nature of True Suchness.

Only by listening to the Dharma can we attain understanding and [eliminate this ignorance] layer by layer. We can guard against wrong and stop evils. As for what happened in the past, we should not hold on to it but let bygones be bygones. What about the future? We must guard against wrongs and stop evils. We must “change from the past”. We correct our past [mistakes] and pay attention to what we will do in the future. If we can do this, we can eliminate our ignorance layer by layer. We must then earnestly protect [our mind] and prevent it from being defiled again. This way, we will understand more and more clearly. So, “If we can cast aside our delusions and return to the True, then noble and ordinary beings will be equal.” If we eliminate our deluded thoughts and return [to the True], we will gradually come to know our nature of True Suchness. This means our consciousness will be purified. When we understand everything clearly, we will no longer take deluded actions.

Naturally, we will thoroughly understand that there is no real difference between noble beings and unenlightened beings. The Buddha said, “The mind, the Buddha and sentient beings are no different [in nature]”. There is no difference. We must be very mindful and show compassion to all equally. We should be compassionate and enter the Tathagata’s room, put on the Tathagata’s clothing and take the emptiness of all phenomena as our seat. The one mind, Three Directives and four methods [are teachings] we must constantly apply in our daily living.

Let us look at the previous sutra passage. “They do not draw near to heretical practitioners, Brahmacarins, Nirgranthas and so on nor to those who compose secular literature or sing the praises of non-Buddhist works nor to Lokayatas or Vam-Lokayatas”.

We must be vigilant and always think about how much we understand. If our spiritual aspirations are not firm, even if we wish to transform people, our strength will not be sufficient and we will instead be transformed by them. So, we should not draw near them. We do not reject them; we just keep a distance. We should not get closely involved with them. If we are unable to convince others, we may be convinced by them.

So, in order to protect the spiritual aspirations of the newly inspired, the Buddha instructed us in this way. “Do not draw near to heretical practitioners, Brahmacarins [etc.]” Though these other religions also have monastics, the practices they cultivate are different from the Buddha-Dharma. They are biased. There are also “Nirgranthas and so on [and] those who compose secular literature”. These are books on worldly matters. We do not have enough time for spiritual practice, so how would we [have time] to read so many other books? There are so many books in this world, including literature from other religions, writing that praise [other teachers] and so on. There are so many treatises. As for [Lokayatas or Vama-Lokayatas, these non-Buddhist practitioners have great numbers of treatises, so many books there are so many principles; some argue for going along with the desires and passions in this world, while others oppose them. These are the “Vama-Lokayatas”. They look at the same texts, but have different viewpoints. All these [perspectives] were out there. We may waste a lot of breath discussing them. This is a waste of time, and moreover, it may affect our thinking.

The next sutra passage continues, “They also do not draw near to any brutal amusements such as wrestling, combat nates or so on or any kind of illusory entertainment. Nor do they draw near to candelas or those who raise pigs, goats, chickens or dogs…”.

We must be very vigilant. Our spiritual aspirations are not yet firm, so we must take good care of our spiritual aspirations and wisdom-life. So, [we must] “not draw near to any brutal amusement”. There are many games in particular, such as wrestling, combat etc., which are very violent activities. There are also people who swallow fire, swallow swords and so on. these are all truly very dangerous. We must not learn or get involved with these. If we care careless, we may get injured.

They also do not draw near to any brutal amusements such as wrestling or combat: They also do not draw near to brutal or dangerous amusements including wrestling with one another or any other brutal and violent games.

So, when it comes to engaging in such dangerous activities, we must not learn them. Whether fighting with each other, wrestling or hitting people, these are things we must not learn. We must also avoid participating in them. Some people watch martial games etc.; there are many such activities which ae truly very dangerous. If we learn them, we will harm ourselves. All of these are considered brutal amusements.

In “natas or so on,” the word “natas” refers to men of great strength. They are very strong. The strength of their grasp is very powerful, and their muscles are very strong. There are also those who paint their bodies or perform all kinds of illusions, magic and so on. “These are actors and actresses”.

These actors and actresses are [what we now call] “celebrities”. We often hear about people chasing after stars, music artists or celebrities. It is the same concept. These are actors and artists. Clearly, we must do our best to handle worldly matters well. If we do nothing but watch entertainment and learn how to play games and so on, we may deviate from our aspiration to practice.

However, we now watch [opens] about the stories of eminent monks. Tang Mei Yun wanted to film the story of Venerable Kukai. They even went to Japan during the cold and snowy winter. They seemed driven by their spiritual aspirations. In walking this path. They traveled to Mount Koya to visit Venerable Kukai’s temple. Ordinarily, people are not allowed to go there, but they went to talk with them, to explain how earnestly they were working to create an account of the spirit of Venerable Kukai. So, this historical temple in Japan opened its doors for our Da Ai TV. In the places where Venerable Kukai used to live, whether his dormitory, his study or his zendo, in those places, they allowed Tang Meiyun to freely film this opera. [They recorded] Venerable Kukai’s environment and the way he had engaged in spiritual practice in his memorial hall. That place was usually under strict supervision; no one could go there. She asked them if she could go up [to the temple], but the people there would not allow her to go. She explained, “I am [playing] Venerable Kukai.” When she dressed up, she truly looked just like Venerable Kukai! They had taken great care to make her clothes just like those of Venerable Kukai’s rea; when she put them on, she looked just like Venerable KuKai’s statue in his memorial hall on Mount Koya. So, she told them, “I am now Venerable Kukai.” She was then able to freely film this opera there. This shows her mindfulness. This is not merely a play. I always say that these are not just plays. They express the spirit of eminent monastics and the course of their spiritual practice, bringing them to life once more. This is also Dharma. It is a way to spread the Dharma.

Every school of Buddhism has a founder. For the Shingon school in Japan, [the founder] was Venerable Kukai. So, his way of life and history were written [into this opera]. I told them they could not make anything up, so they were very meticulous as they wrote it. I told them that they must write the script as if it was Venerable Kukai’s journals. In this way, by filming they are passing down his story, scene by scene through sound and images. They also consulted his journals. This is the best way to bear witness to the lives of these eminent monastics. This is the same principle. What kind of play is this? We must deeply understand this. Life like a play, and a play is like life. We must not become confused.

Any kind of illusory entertainment: This refers to people in the world who make up their faces and change their appearances. If members of the audience cling to the unreal as the truth, if they become obsessed with love and hate, their minds will be swept away.

In this world, there are all kinds of “illusory entertainment. One person can play many people. This is illusory entertainment.

They “make up their faces.” In this way, depending on who they want to act as, they “change their appearances,” [becoming] different people with names and different appearances.

For “members of the audience,” when people put on performances, they may become obsessed, even though these dramas are all fictional. But in Tzu Chi, in all the dramas we air, people can attest to [these true events]. We are not just acting as these people; they have confirmed [their story for us]. Their friends and family can also verify it. So, in Tzu Chi’s Mission of Culture, we are returning to the truth. We wish to pass on and bear witness to [these stories], writing history for humankind. These are true [stories]. Thus, we do not let any moment pass in vain. [The account] of every moment and every word we say is the truth. This is to “report the truth with integrity.” These are not imaginary dramas. However, there are dramas that delude people’s minds.
“If members of the audience cling to the unreal as truth….” Some people take the unreal for the truth. The audience watches the play on the stage. The audience watches the play on the stage where there are very people and [good people] who are oppressed and buillied. Perhaps a stepmother abuses her stepchildren. There are such plays. In the past, when I was very young, as the actors were performing on stage, the audience would get upset. Some people would rush on stage. Some try to hit [the stepmother]. They thought the play was reality. When those on stage cried, the audience cried; when those on stage laughed, the audience laughed. When people got angry, they would even run on stage to hit people. They could not handle being bystanders.” In this way, people become confused and “cling to the unreal as the truth. They become obsessed with love and hate.” Swaved by love, hate, passion and animosity, they become entangled. So, we must be very vigilant. Nor do they draw near to candalas or those who raise pigs, goats, chickens and dogs.

Nor do they deaw near to candalas or those who raise pigs, goals, chickens and dogs: “Candalas” here refers to butchers who bey and sell meat and bring about the slaughter of living beings as well as those who raise such animals with the sole purpose of slaughtering them.

We must be very vigilant. We must not have this kind of [livelihood]. This is committing the karma of killing. Even buying and selling in this kind of work means that these living beings will be bought, sold and killed. Some people raise animals, providing them to others to slaughter and eat. We should do our best to avoid getting near them, we must also not do this ourselves. We must be very vigilant of this. As for “candalas,” there were four clearly defined castes in India. But candalas were outcasts because of the work they did. They were considered inferior, since they were doing things like raising pigs and lambs etc. as well as hunting and fishing and so on. They created evil karma as a way to make a living. “Drawing near to them will increase our negative affinities, so we must not draw near to them.” This kind of killing, buying and selling, raising livestock, hunting and so on are all ways of creating negative affinities with sentient beings. So, we must not draw near to them.

Drawing near to them will increase our negative affinities, so we must not draw near to them. Thus, we must keep a distance from negative karma and conditions because all these amusements can undermine our positive karma and disturb people’s minds. So, Bodhisattvas should not draw near to them. This is another reason that we must avoid harmful and disruptive affinities.

“Thus, we must keep a distance from negative karma and conditions” We must not get close so we can keep away from this negative karma. We must not do these things nor have any business with people who do them. Not only should we not kill, we must not buy and sell [meat] or raise animals. These living beings all have their natural lifestyles. “All these amusements can undermine our positive karma.” These things can corrupt our virtuous karma. “[They] disturb people’s minds.” So, “Bodhisattvas should not draw near to them. This is another reason that we must avoid harmful and disruptive affinities.” So, we must be very alert when it comes to this.

The sutra passage continues, “…or those who hunt, fish, trap or engage in other unwholesome activities. If people like this should approach them on any occasion, they will expound the Dharma for them but without any expectations.”

People engaging in hunting and fishing all create negative karma. These [vocations] are all considered evil. So, if we draw near them, it will undermine our spiritual aspirations. If people [work] in a slaughterhouse and we go spend our entire day there, it will harm our spiritual aspirations. This will “undermine our spiritual aspirations”. Drawing near them will affect our will to practice.

Those who hunt, fish, trap or engage in other unwholesome activities: Hunting and fishing are unwholesome activities that undermine our own spiritual aspirations. We must avoid all unwholesome and destructive things. These are known as unwholesome activities.

So, “We must avoid all unwholesome and destructive things.” [Activities] that harm or kill sentient beings are things that we should avoid. “These are known as unwholesome activities.” These unwholesome activities of killing are things we need to avoid; we must not go to those places. So, “If people like this should approach them on any occasion….” If people like these, the kinds of people mentioned before, were to come to us on their own accord with good intentions, if this happens, we should “expound the Dharma for them but without any expectations.”

They will expound the Dharma for them but without any expectations: They can then expound the Right Dharma for them, but should do so without any expectations.

Since they come on their own accord, we should teach the Dharma to them. They have good hearts; although they take on these kinds of occupations, they are only doing it for a living. They think of this as their way to make a living. So, they are unaware. Since they are determined and have already come, we should mindfully teach them the Dharma. We must teach the Right Dharma, but we should not have any expectations. We want to do our best to teach them, but to ask them to change immediately would be very difficult. We must patiently help them comprehend the principles. They will then gradually correct their faults. We must not be too pushy and keep seeking them out. We must not be forceful, or they will feel unhappy. So, we should let them know the principles and slowly help them understand. Then, step by step, they will give up their wrongdoings on their own and will start doing virtuous deeds. So, we should still teach them the Dharma. We should not reject or give up on them, but we must not draw near them. We should not seek them out ourselves or frequent those places.

The aforementioned non-Buddhist practitioners argue with one another over their conflicting teachings. Because they possess all kinds of evil views and cling to thinking that they are right, they will never resonate with the impartial, everlasting and universal truth of True Suchness. If we draw near to them, this will obstruct our right views. This is another reason why we should avoid negative affinities and those with evil views.

The aforementioned non-Buddhist practitioners “argue with one another.” Lokayatas and Vama-Lokayatas [practiced] different non-Buddhist teachings. There were more than 90 religions which all argued amongst each other. They all had conflicting principles. Religions should be peaceful, but due to different perspectives, they come into conflict with one another. This is why we should not draw near these non-Buddhist teachings. “They possess all kinds of evil views and cling to thinking that they are right.” Conflicts between people arise because we think we are right. So, “They will never resonate with the impartial, everlasting and universal truth of True Suchness.” When it comes to the principle of the everlasting and universal True Suchness, these religious practitioners, because they follow non-Buddhist teachings, are unable to accept it; they cannot accept this truly impartial, everlasting principle of True Suchness. Because of this, “They will never resonate with it.” There are many principles that they will not accept. So, “If we draw near to them, this will obstruct our right views.” If we keep hoping to transform them and stubbornly cling [to this idea], we may end up transformed by them instead. “If we draw near to them, this will obstruct our right views.” We will be affected by them. Although we clearly have right views, we will be affected by their many arguments, and we will allow them to lead us astray. Thus, we should still refrain from drawing close. So, “This is another reason why we should avoid negative affinities and those with evil views.”

When it comes to the four kinds of people above, Bodhisattvas should only refrain from drawing near to them; this does not mean that they should refuse to speak to them. If they come, we must teach the Dharma to them in suitable ways, but we should not expect any offerings or to receive any praise from them.

Next it says, “When it comes to the four kinds of people above, Bodhisattvas should only refrain from drawing near to them.” This is telling us not to draw near. When the causes and conditions are not mature and we are not [clear] enough on the principles, we must not overlook our own limitations and try to go transform others. If our spiritual aspirations are not firm, we risk being influenced by them. So. It is just that we must not draw near them. “[we] should refuse to speak to them.” This does not mean we should not talk to them, that we should ignore them, not at all. It is just that we must not be curious about their practices or go about thinking that we can transform them. If we fail, we may instead be transformed by them. So, “We must teach the Dharma to them in suitable ways.” if the affinity is there, we should tell them what we know and stop when it is appropriate. “But we should not expect any offerings or to receive any praise from them.” We must not think, “If I say this, they will be able to accept it” or think we will obtain offerings from them. There is no need. There is also no need to receive their praise. We must use right knowledge and right views; we must be mindful of this.

We have already mentioned four kinds of people. First, do not draw near to kings, princes or great ministers. Second, do not draw near to heretical practitioners, brahmacarins [etc.]. Third, do not draw near to any brutal amusements such as combat and so on. Fourth, do not draw near to those who hunt or engage in other unwholesome activities. When it comes to these four kinds of people, we must mindfully seek to comprehend this. The Buddha-Dharma is very subtle and intricate and [difficult to] thoroughly understand. The Buddha mindfully guided us, so as long as we mindfully seek to comprehend, the true principles are right in front of us; we resonate with the principles to enter the path. Using the principles that the Buddha taught, we should earnestly seek to comprehend this.

Modern technology has now verified the Buddha-Dharma. [This shows] that no matter how much time passes, the principles are everlasting; [they are] here in this present moment. So, we must truly be mindful. We must not become covered by visiting dust or allow the environment to lead us astray. We must take care of our minds, of our spiritual aspirations and our wisdom-life. We are not yet strong enough, so we must not forget our own limits and think we [are ready] to go transform others. Instead, we should be earnest in our practice and thoroughly understand the principles. Once our practice is firm and we cannot be influenced, we can think about going to transform others. So, I must ask you all to always be mindful.

(Source: Da Ai TV – Wisdom at Dawn program – Explanation by Master Chen-Yen)
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