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 20180803《靜思妙蓮華》有為無為 實不實法 (第1406集) (法華經·安樂行品第十四)

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發表主題: 20180803《靜思妙蓮華》有為無為 實不實法 (第1406集) (法華經·安樂行品第十四)   周五 8月 03, 2018 7:04 am

20180803《靜思妙蓮華》有為無為 實不實法 (第1406集) (法華經·安樂行品第十四)

⊙有為法則有造作謂之有為,是因緣所生,事物盡有為法;因緣是能造作所生之事物,造作之事物必有因緣:是謂有為法。
⊙無始來自爾而非因緣所生者,名謂之無為法。無造作之念,無貪欲之心。
⊙《無量義經》云:其心寂靜,常在三昧,恬安澹泊,無為無欲。
⊙「販肉自活,衒賣女色,如是之人,皆勿親近。」《法華經安樂行品第十四》
⊙「兇險相撲,種種嬉獻,諸淫女等,盡勿親近。莫獨屏處,為女說法,若說法時,無得戲笑。入里乞食,將一比丘,若無比丘,一心念佛。」《法華經安樂行品第十四》
⊙「是則名為,行處近處,以此二處,能安樂說。」《法華經安樂行品第十四》
⊙「又復不行,上中下法,有為無為,實不實法,亦不分別,是男是女。」《法華經安樂行品第十四》
⊙有為:有所造作是世間法,故云不實。
⊙無為:即出世間法,故名無為。萬法體性之義,則為法性;就其體真實常住,則為真如實相。
⊙又復不行,上中下法:菩薩六度,名為上法。緣覺所修,名為中法。聲聞四諦,名為下法。不行:如非佛道者不當行,即法無所行,不為,無法執。
⊙有為:謂有生滅法;即是世間因果生死苦業人天之法。無為:謂無生滅法。即是空寂涅槃二乘小行方便之法。
⊙實不實法:實謂有實體之實法;即是有宗,執一切法悉是實有。不實謂實體上分位之假法。即是空宗,空有二見,皆非佛乘。求佛道者,不當行也。
⊙亦不分別,是男是女:此為無眾生執。佛法平等,普被一切。亦不必得,分別男女。

【證嚴上人開示】
有為法則有造作謂之有為,是因緣所生,事物盡有為法;因緣是能造作所生之事物,造作之事物必有因緣:有為法。

有為法則有造作
謂之有為
是因緣所生
事物盡有為法
因緣是
能造作所生之事物
造作之事物
必有因緣
是謂有為法。

那就是說,「有為法」就是「有造作」,就是叫做「有為」。這項東西本來是沒有的,也就是要人去想,我要什麼東西,我來設計;我設計,若用什麼樣的材料,和什麼樣的物質會合起來,那就是有法。有這個方法去利用物質,用我們的心思,這樣去將它合成起來,這叫做「有為法」。這個「有為法」,那就是我們人心思的造作,沒有的,用心去完成它,這都叫做「有為法」。

我們人間都差不多是在「有為法」,所以就有計較心。沒有,什麼都沒有,計較什麼啊?就是因為心有所計較,所以,他就會去用心思,去造作,很多的事情都是因為心思造作來所有完成。世間這麼多的物質,都是經過心思,我們的心去思考它,去完成。

很多原來的東西,後來變相、變名,不同!同一個大地,土地,土地的物質,我們能夠拿來做幾項用?很多。每天早上,端起碗來,你們知道嗎?這個碗,不離開土。去看看慈師父的陶藝坊,不就是在那裡做手拉坏!手拉坏,手裡在拉、拉、拉,那是什麼?土啊。經過了一番的心思,所以那個土變成碗、杯子、盤,種種的器具,也能夠燈、燈籠,也能夠……。總是心如工畫師,無畫而不有,全都是用心將它造作起來。什麼東西,只要你心的相是什麼?它就造了什麼相。同一項的物質,不同的名稱,不同的相,是人所需要用的,他就是要去用心。有的是裝飾的,也是用心,這全都是同一項物質。原來就有在大地裡,在大地的一堆土,能夠成為生活中所用的器具,也能建房屋。土,土塊,以前的人用土,這樣一塊一塊,四四方方,用稻草、用黏土,這樣將它做成一塊一塊,拿來建房屋。「土」建的房屋,冬暖夏涼,這就是土。

土,也可以變成瓦,這也是用土去燒成瓦,土變成瓦,土變成磚,或者是紅磚。愈來愈發達,土燒為,經過火燒,叫做「紅磚」,它也是土。再來更發達,將土拿燒為水泥;水泥,高樓大廈,無不都是土,光是一個土,人的心思,將它變變變,變成了各種不同的形,不同的用途,不同的名稱,這都叫做「有為法」,有所作為的形相的名稱,這全都是。所以,「是因緣所生」。只有土,有作用嗎?還要水,水,要選擇土質,是什麼樣的土質能做土磚?只有土,還不夠,它需要黏,黏的土;需要是稻草,稻草將它攪拌在土裡,這樣加強它的強度,耐久強度。所以磚,還要有水,還要分析它的性,是什麼樣的土性,能夠做什麼東西?土磚就是這樣。

而一般的磚又是要用什麼土質?去經過火燒過,才會很堅固,才會硬呢?而要做水泥的,到底要什麼樣的土質?怎麼樣經過了歷練過,就是成為水泥。所以,光是土,就有很多不同的質,不同的性,土的性和質,也是要經過了人的心思,去將它分別,這能燒成瓷,能做磚,能做水泥等等。光是這樣,它就要有它的因,有它的緣。很多項,水分,或者是它的性,經過烈火洪爐,它會成為什麼東西?這全都是有為法,有所造作而成就的物質,所以「有為法」。「是因緣所生」。因緣所生的事物,這因緣,真的要有水、要有火,要有器具,才能夠一一完成它,人所需要的物質,它的形態、它的名稱,在人生活中所需要利用的,需要的是因緣和合。人和東西怎麼樣去將它變化,成物、相、名,這個東西有這個相,將它命什麼名?這全都是因緣會合,若沒有人的心理的起動,這些東西它不會自己會合,需要是人去設計,需要人去造作。所以,會成為形相不同,不同。

所以,「因緣是,能造作所生之事物」。一切的因緣,人有心,想要的東西,設計好了,原料沒有成就,也沒有辦法合成起來。所以,要有「能」、「所」,有能造作的人,他會設計,他會想要,他會想,種種的形式。他會想什麼東西是這樣的性質,什麼東西,是不合這個形相、物質的性,它就不可用。所以,能去選擇,能去造作的人是「能」;「所」,這些物質是被所用的。它自己是什麼性,人類慢慢將它分析過,就是這樣,什麼樣的性,什麼樣的質合做什麼樣的,這很多很複雜的東西,由人去挑選過,去合成起來。所以,因緣能造作。人啊,「所生之事物」。外面的境界,外面的物質,是被所完成的東西。所以,「能所」,要有因緣,要有「能」與「所」。人是「能」,可以去做的,能創作很多東西,是人去創作。所有的東西是被人所利用,所以「能所」和「因緣」,要會合。

「造作之事物必有因緣」。所造作的東西,這些東西一定要有因緣會合。你要一張桌子,這張桌子,它的柴料,是什麼樣的柴料,堪得做一張桌子嗎?這個桌子材質不好,不堪用。你說用榕樹,能做桌子嗎?沒辦法,硬梆梆、布滿樹瘤,不是能做器具的東西,做不得。這就是要有種種的質料,去完成它,要選擇。所以,「造作之事物必有因緣」,就是要有因緣在,人想得到,做得到,能夠做的,這叫做「有為法」。

我們要很用心去體會它,我們日常生活,到底所做的東西是什麼?所以,集一切的物質,來完成一項東西。要完成的過程,沒有一樣東西是不受破壞。因緣也能夠受完成,因緣也是破壞一切。原始的一直被破壞了,新生成的東西愈來愈多。這就是現在的世間相,它有相,就是因為經過了「能所」,人會去造作,物是被改造利用的,就成為現這個相。所以,這個「能所」,就是在這樣,我們日常生活所接觸到。

所以,「無始來」,無始以來,「自爾而非因緣所生者,名謂之無為法」。

無始來
自爾
而非因緣所生者
名謂之無為法
無造作之念
無貪欲之心

從原始就有的。本來就是有,不是刻意能造作的人,也不是有被造作的東西,這本來它就有,不用人去造作。
「無造作之念,無貪欲之心」,這就是無造作的念。

《無量義經》云:
其心寂靜
常在三昧
恬安澹泊
無為無欲

《無量義經》這樣說。《無量義經》大家常常在讀,「其心禪寂,常在三昧,恬安憺泊,無為無欲。」這是《無量義經》這樣說過了,所以說來,我們的心若能這樣常常很寂靜,心不會受外面的物質,將我們誘引過去。有形、有相、有名,這些東西都是人所作為。我們的心若沒有去造作它,這些形相都是歸在大自然。就是有造作,一項東西,就變成無量數的形相、名稱。人的心若這樣很恬寂,那就是保存著大自然,土歸土、水歸水,歸它的原形,這就是沒有什麼因緣,去將它會合造作,就要看我們人的心,是不是寂靜呢?是不是不動,不起雜念,就不會有這麼多的形去造作,就沒有了。所以,心若沒有很多的欲念,自然在日常生活中,該做的事情就來做。多餘的,我們就不用太過於去爭、去取,心自然就這樣很恬安憺泊」。所以,「無為無欲」,我們的心沒有什麼樣的欲念,所以一切自然,就是叫做「無為」;「無為」就是很自然,很自然沒什麼樣去「能做」和「所做」,都沒有,我們要很用心。

有相、無相。下面我們會看到有相、無相,有為、無為,這就是我們很要用心去體會。

前面的文:「販肉自活,衒賣女色,如是之人,皆勿親近。」

販肉自活
衒賣女色
如是之人
皆勿親近
《法華經安樂行品第十四》

殺生,來做維持我們的生活,不可哦!若是這樣的環境,我們不要投入進去。「衒賣女色」,就是販賣女色,這是不道德的事情,所以這也不可,這種色情的場所,也要避離。「如是之人,皆勿親近」。還有,「兇險相撲」這樣做那種很危險的遊戲等等,這種的戲笑,這種的色情,我們全都不可親近。

兇險相撲
種種嬉獻
諸淫女等
盡勿親近
莫獨屏處
為女說法
若說法時
無得戲笑
入里乞食
將一比丘
若無比丘
一心念佛
《法華經安樂行品第十四》

又再「莫獨屏處,為女說法」。男女之間要很正當,不要有私情,不要在暗角裡,這容易惹來怨嫌,會讓人嫌疑等等。世間不就是常常為了男女之情,發生家庭問題、社會問題,很多不愉快的,或者是世間有很多禍端,就是這樣發生。所以,感情要很用心注意。

若是要為她說法,那一定要用很端莊的態度,要在公眾的地方,這都前面說過了,不要在戲笑群中而投入。假使若要去鄉里、去村莊,要去弘法,不要自己一個,還是要有人作伴。若沒有人作伴,還是要念佛心,律己心,端端莊莊的,這樣,用很有威儀,不要輕浮,這就是佛陀的交代。對這弘法的人,「是則名為,行處近處,以此二處,能安樂說」。

是則名為
行處近處
以此二處
能安樂說
《法華經安樂行品第十四》

若能夠這樣避離了是非,也就是我們要弘法,我們能夠走進去,我們弘法,就能夠很安全。聽法的人受用,講法的人歡喜,彼此之間,日常生活一切合法,我們都會很安樂,很歡喜。

接下來的文就說:「又復不行,上中下法,有為無為,實不實法,亦不分別,是男是女。」

又復不行
上中下法
有為無為
實不實法
亦不分別
是男是女
《法華經安樂行品第十四》

要用心聽法清楚,有為就是剛才所說的,「有所造作是世間法,故云不實」。

有為:
有所造作是世間法
故云不實

用心設計,從大自然的資源,要將它成就出什麼樣的相,什麼樣的用途,什麼樣的名稱,這一切的一切都是在世間裡,就是這樣「有造作」,世間就有事、有物,有事物,那自然世間就有爭端,這是很實在的道理。所以,這些東西,所造作的東西,它是不是就這樣永遠呢?沒有,它也有造作的過程,也有壞掉了,壞掉的時候。所以到最後,還是歸於「空」。世間的物質,總是不論如何,它就是有壞掉時,有不堪用,那就是「不實」。東西,用心計較將它完成,卻是最後這個東西也報廢掉了,所以這些東西還是不實。只要是世間有造作的東西,都不牢固,就不實用了,這叫做「不實」。若「無為」呢?

無為:
即出世間法
故名無為
萬法體性之義
則為法性
就其體真實常住
則為真如實相

「無為法」就是「出世間法」。不是為世間造作,我們就是道理要讓大家很了解,因為道理無形、無體相,是要讓大家清楚了解,從我們的心識,我們的心理,我們的意識能夠這樣分分明明,是非分得清楚。我們不好的脾氣,如何改變過來?如何待人接物?這是一個道理,道理無形、無相,能夠說出去,但是,「言語道斷」,說出去了,接受的人要趕緊吸收進來,用在心裡,用在行動。說出去的人就說出去了,道理看不到,語言無形相,但是無形相,入你的耳根,住在你的心裡,用在你的日常生活裡,這是能夠用的。道理能用,但是無體相。我們吸收來用,在轉我們的心念,淨化,讓我們的意識清清楚楚。

今生,用在今生,如何利益人群;來生,意識,萬般帶不去,就是這個業識,很清楚的淨業,帶來到我們下一世,人說「讀前世書」就是這樣。這雖然無形,卻是萬法體性,萬法的體性,將它濃縮起來,用語言說出去。傳法是這樣,但是外在要造作的方法,也是這樣,因為它無體相。這個東西要如何做?師傅來傳,師傅有方法,但是看不到,要用心學。學了之後,用心去設計,才成東西,是同樣的道理。所以,法是用在如何淨化人心,佛法就是這樣。世間法,那就是師傅傳徒弟,這東西如何去完成,這就是世間法。傳佛法,那就是無形、無相,這樣對你說,你的心得吸收到,轉變你的心念,你雜亂的心變成了「靜思惟」,將心靜下來,思考正確,引導人人向正方向走,這叫做「佛法」,叫做「出世間法」。

所以,「萬法體性之義」。萬法體性,那就是有很多的方法,用在世間法,就是有生滅法;用在出世間法,那就是以法性,法性就是這樣相傳。「就其體,真實常住」。這個法性常住,常常就是在的。我們今生可以用,來生還是很深的,在我們的意識裡面。同樣這個法還是長長久久,不是像世間的法,造作之後,物資,有敗壞掉的時候,不是。它是永恆常住,因為這樣,所以它的體是「真實常住」。你要說法有體嗎?沒有,但是若要認真說它的體,就是我們受用的法。這個受用的法,你受用了,你自己轉變你的心思。這個法,你用了,對法來說,不增不減。因為說給你聽,法還是在,它沒有增減,它沒有形相,所以它是常住,同樣的道理。

若是傳世間的法,有去造作,這些東西就不見了。功夫,這次是老師傅教的,是很好,但是現在不必用到老師傅,這個方法了,老師傅也不見了,這個方法也失傳了,就不見了,這就是「法」,世間法都有失傳,或者是成就起來的東西,就會有敗壞,這就是叫做「世間法」。佛法永遠不增不減,我說給你聽,我也沒有減少了;你有用,你能夠再增加。了解之後,你看到其他的環境,看到事,能夠來會理,所以你聽進去的,你能夠與世間事會合起來,這法就在你的心裡增長,多了解。在我呢?我不增不減,因為我說過之後,我就說出去了,但是,對我來說也沒有減少,沒有損失,這就是永恆的法,所以「就其體真實常住,則為真如實相」。這是真如,這是實相。「又復不行,上中下法」。

又復不行
上中下法:
菩薩六度名為上法
緣覺所修名為中法
聲聞四諦名為下法
不行:
如非佛道者不當行
即法無所行
不為
無法執

又再,我們要很注意,是什麼叫做上法、中法、下法?先用「菩薩六度」,名叫做「上法」;「緣覺所修」,名叫做「中法」;聲聞所修的是「四諦」,名是「下法」。那就是大、中、小法,就是上、中、下法,也是一樣。下法就是小乘,中法是緣覺乘,上法是菩薩乘。這也能夠叫做「上中下法」。

「不行」,那就是「非佛道者不當行」。因為世間很多很複雜,除了這三乘法以外,還有非佛法,「非佛道」,我們就不要去行。「即法無所行,不為,無法執」。意思就是說,不是佛法,我們就不應該去靠近。前面就已一直說,邪見,或者是很多很多不該親近的,我們不能去。但是,有法,有法,我們對機,對象不是很成熟,我們不用勉強要進去。剛才也說要注意,不要去,就是有法也不能這樣強去施為。時間還沒有到,因緣還沒有成熟,我們的力量還沒有很完全,所以我們也不要。

這是前面說,我們要警惕自己,不是佛法,我們不要去親近;不是對機,我們也不要進去;那就是有法,就是也不能去施用,所以我們也不用掛礙,所以「無法執」。不為,這個時候不是能夠去做的,我們就先放下,不用去執著。有的人「本欲度眾生,反被眾生度」。不敢去度,但是心在那個地方很不安。我們也要放下,等待時機,等待因緣成熟,若不能做,就是不能去勉強。

像最近,一直聽到天下多少的災難,評估起來,路還沒有通,橋斷了。這個國家裡面、那個國家很亂,還沒有辦法進去等等,這全都還是不可為,也不能強。心放在那裡在擔憂,也沒有用,必須暫時放下。世間事也是這樣啊!

所以,「有為無為」。意思就是說,「有為」就是「謂有生滅法」。

有為:
謂有生滅法
即是世間因果
生死苦業人天之法
無為:
謂無生滅法
即是空寂涅槃
二乘小行方便之法

剛才說過的,一堆土,這座山,整座山是很美,為了人間需要的東西,破壞了山形,山裡面所蘊藏的東西,就是人一直挖去了,土也好,土質的裡面,還有含著銅、金、銀,或者是錫,很多的金屬在那裡面,就這樣不斷人為,有為,就是一直人去取它。本來就是一座山,山裡面含著很多的質,人類不斷去用心,去用心去要取得這裡面所含的。常常在說現在科技很發達,發達的東西,都是這些有形大地被破壞,抽取出來那個精要的東西,用在現在的科技裡。所以,這是大破壞。所以,我們用東西就要很惜福,要好好將它珍惜,才不會一直淘汰掉;淘汰掉,就一直浪費,這些山河大地、自然景物,就這樣一直消滅掉。

所以,「有生滅法」,這就是「有為」。本來大自然就是這麼豐富,就是因為它豐富,因為它豐富,所以才受到破滅,才這樣破壞、滅掉了。滅彼生此,山地、水土都整個破壞了,就生起了這麼多,人人很方便在應用的東西。所以,就是「世間因果,生死苦業,人天之法」。在這個地方,我們就知道,就是因為「有為」,所以「有生滅法」。就是這樣破壞,就產生了這麼多,人類在使用的東西,這個過程。結果呢?就是世間因果,因為破壞,現在大地反撲了,所以災難,氣候不調,災難偏多。山河大地這樣一直,下個大雨,那就是整個村莊都會滅掉,這就是因果,「因果」。「生死苦業,人天之法」,這叫做「有為」。我們要很用心。

若是「無為」呢?就是「無生滅法」。不生不滅,法原來就是這樣,你說出再多的法出去,對說的人,沒有減少;對聽的人,能夠受用,他會「增」,增加慧命,增加智慧,源源不斷,「一理通,萬理徹」。一個法出去,人人所聽的,境界不同,受用不同,那個智識不同。聽聽早會的時候,很重要的,我們醫生、護士、醫技,都會來分享啊!像簡副院長(大林慈院簡瑞騰副院長)說他醫療,他也會再回過頭來說:「早上,一大早師父在說的,就是這樣的法」。趙院長(臺北慈院趙有誠院長)在說也是。一個病人,怎麼會這樣?肝,來看看。看一看,後來病人就問他:「明天早上還有薰法香嗎?」「你怎麼會這樣問?」原來也是因緣牽引。

四十多歲,酒喝到肝都壞掉了,一輩子醉茫茫,已經到這樣的程度。就是他只是有一個因緣,趙院長一直追問他,細說因緣,才知道說他沒有多久以前,撿到一隻鴿子。鴿子的腳有一個圈,知道牠的主人是什麼人。他一念好心,將這隻斑鴿撿起來,循著牠的(腳)圈,知道主人在哪裡,打電話給主人,原來這個主人的親戚,就是有師兄,師兄聽到了,覺得這個怎麼這麼好心,救到斑鴿,還打電話來。他就是去看他,原來他就是愛喝酒的人,開始與他互動,要為他戒酒。就用團隊,有師姊,也有師兄在關懷他,所以他就這樣認識慈濟,就這樣想要戒酒,就這樣來看醫生,就這樣才會問:「有沒有在薰法香?」這個因緣,所以這醫療,也能夠接觸到佛法,在那個境界,他會增加智慧,因緣就是這樣牽引。是啊!這就是叫做「因緣」,「因緣法」。

若是「無為」呢?「謂是無生滅法」。是無生、無滅。所以,「空寂涅槃,二乘小行方便之法」。這些二乘,就是要求得能夠解脫,不敢再來人間。

所以,「實不實法」,要用心去了解。

實不實法:
實謂有實體之實法
即是有宗
執一切法悉是實有
不實謂實體上分位
之假法
即是空宗
空有二見
皆非佛乘
求佛道者
不當行也

「實」就是這樣,「謂有實體之法法」,「執一切法,悉是實有」,這個法,我們若是去用它這個法,小乘,就是聲聞、緣覺,他們認為有這樣的法,所以我就是執在這樣的法。我就要能夠一世解脫,入涅槃,這就是有這樣「執為實法」。

「不實法」呢?那就是在實體上來分位之假法。就是空宗,「空有二見」,是「空」、是「有」,「皆非佛性」這不是究竟,「皆非佛乘」,這不是究竟的佛法,「求佛道者,不當行」。我們真正要求佛道,不應該是這樣。「亦不分別,是男是女」。

亦不分別
是男是女:
此為無眾生執
佛法平等
普被一切
亦不必得
分別男女

其實眾生平等,怎麼前面一直在說,是女不可親近,不男之人不可親近。眾生都平等,但是偏偏有世間的相,會惹起人的心欲,惹起人心的煩惱,要我們預防。所以,其實,說到清楚,認真來,就是不分別是男、是女。像龍女,說她年紀小,又是女身,人家她轉一個身,南方成佛去了。所以,我們要徹底,佛性就是不分,全都是平等。

「此為無眾生執」,「佛法平等,普被一切」,沒有人、動物等等的分別。所以,「普被一切」。亦不必有所得的心,也沒有分別的念。我們若能夠這樣,自然,佛法,我們就是日常在佛法中。這「實」和「不實」,我們要清楚了解。「有為」、「無為」,我們若能夠了解,佛法大體上,我們就能夠清楚。所以,我們要時時多用心!


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Explanations by Master Cheng-Yan
Subject: Conditioned and Unconditioned, Real and Unreal (有為無為 實不實法)
Date: August.03.2018

“Conditioned phenomena are that which is created. That which is called ‘conditioned’ arises from causes and conditions. All matters and objects are conditioned phenomena. Causes and conditions are what can create the matters and objects that arise. The matters and objects created must have their causes and conditions.”

This is what “conditioned phenomena” are. Here, it explains how “conditioned phenomena” are “that which is created”. This is the meaning of “conditioned”. It refers to things that did not originally exist but that were thought up in someone’s mind. “I want something, so I design it. Once I have designed it, I take these materials and combine them like this.” This is [thinking up] a method. When with our thinking we find a way to make use of these materials and combine them together, the result is a “conditioned phenomenon.”

These “conditioned phenomena” are things we as humans think up and create, things that did not exist before but that we produced using our minds. These things are called “conditioned phenomena.” Most things in the world are conditioned, and we start to take issue over these things. But really there was nothing at all to begin with, so what is there for us to take issue over? We do this because our minds are [unsatisfied]. So, we begin to think and create. These many different things [exist] because we use our thinking to create them. These many material things in the world are all a product of our minds, things we thought up and created. Many things that were originally one way eventually change in appearance and are given different names.

From the same land, the same earth, [using] the materials from the earth, how many different things can we make? Very many! The bowl I hold in my hand every morning, did you know that the bowl [is made from] the earth? If you look at Master De Tzu’s ceramics shop, doesn’t she shape [the pottery] with her hands? To shape it, she pulls and pulls at it. What does she shape? She shapes clay! Using her ingenuity, she turns the clay into bowls, cups, plates and all kinds of containers. She can also make lamps and lanterns. The mind is like an artist; it can create anything. Everything is created by the mind. No matter what it is, whatever appears in our minds is an appearance we can create. From the very same materials, [we can create things] with different names and appearances. If it is something people need to use, [Master De Tzu] is very mindful.

Other pieces are ornamental, but she puts her heart into those too. These things are all made from the same material. They originally came from the ground. The clay from the ground can be turned into vessels for our daily use, or it can be used to build houses. In the past, people took lumps of clay and made them into square bricks. They mixed grass into the clay to make each brick, one by one, and used them to build houses. Houses that are constructed of bricks stay warm in the winter and cool in the summer. This is [a property of] clay. Clay can also be turned into tiles. The clay can be baked into tiles. Clay can be turned into tiles or into bricks. As civilization became more and more developed, bricks were put through a firing process, creating what we [know as] red bricks, which are also made from the earth. As [society] developed even further, we learned how to make cement. With cement, [we make] high-rises and skyscrapers. All of these are made of earth. Just with earth, human ingenuity turns it into so many different forms, with their own functions and names. These are all “conditioned phenomena”. This is the name for the forms and appearances we create. These are all [conditioned phenomena].

So, they “arise from causes and conditions.” Does earth have a function on its own? We also need water. We need water, and we must choose the right type of earth. What type of earth is needed for clay bricks? Dirt by itself is not enough. It takes sticky clay and straw. The straw must be mixed into the clay to strengthen it and make it more durable. [To make] bricks, we also need water, so we need to analyze what kind of earth we need to make the things [we want to create]. This is how bricks [are made]. For making the average brick, what kind of earth can we use that, after being fired, will become solid and hard? When making cement, what type of earth should we use and what process must it undergo in order to become cement? So, speaking of earth alone, there are many different types with many different properties. People distinguish different types of earth by determining that. “This can be fired into ceramic. This can be made into bricks. This can be used to make cement” and so on.

So, simply within this [one category], [earth] indeed has its own causes and conditions. They are many, whether its water content or [other properties]. After firing it at high temperatures in a furnace, what will it become? All of these are conditioned phenomena, things created [due to causes and conditions]. So, these are “conditioned phenomena”. They “arise from causes and conditions”. They are things that arise from causes and conditions. These causes and conditions are [things like] water, fire and different tools, each of which are needed to produce these things. All the material things that we need have their own forms and names. The things that we need to utilize in our lives all require causes and conditions to come together. How do people transform things into objects with appearances and names? How do they give objects with certain appearances their particular names? This all depends on their causes and conditions coming together.

Without people’s minds giving rise [to ideas], these things would not come together on their own. They need to be designed by people and created by people in order to take on their different forms and appearances.

So, “Causes and conditions are what can create the matters and objects that arise.” All things [depend upon] causes and conditions. In someone’s mind, they may desire something, but even once it has been designed, if there are no materials, then there is no way for this thing to take shape. So, there must be a “subject” and an “object”. Those who can create things will design and contemplate them. They will consider many different forms. If the properties they want this thing to have do not align with its form, then they cannot use [this design]. So, those who make these choices, the ones who can create, are the “subjects,” while the “objects” are the things they use. People gradually analyze the properties of these things. “Things is what it is like. It has these kinds of properties and is this combination of these materials?” In this way, many complicate things are [created by] people selecting materials and putting them together. Thus, it is people who [use] causes and conditions to create things!

[Next, it says], “Matters and objects that arise.” External states also result [from causes and conditions]. Thus, if there is a “subject and object,” then there must be causes and conditions. This requires both a “subject” and an “object”. People are the “subjects”. The ones who make things and put these many things together are human beings. All of these things are then used by humans. So, this all requires the “subject and object” and the “causes and conditions” coming together.

Thus, “The matters and objects created must have their causes and conditions.” Everything that is created has causes and conditions that have come together. If you want a table, you need some wood to make that table. What kind of wood is suitable for making tables? “The quality of this wood is no good for a table! It is not usable!” Could we make a table out of banyan wood? It is impossible. It is very hard and full of burls. It is not wood from which to make usable wares. They cannot be made from it. We need many kinds of materials; if we want to complete the project, we must choose [the right ones]. So, “The matters and objects created must have their causes and conditions.” These causes and conditions are inherent.

Anything people can think up, create and produce is called a “conditioned phenomenon”. We should seek to mindfully comprehend this. In our daily living, what are things that we create? So, many materials are brought together in order to produce one thing. In this production process, everything that is used must first be destroyed. Causes and conditions can create things, but they can also destroy all things. What originally [excised] is destroyed so that more and more new things can be created. This is the appearance our modern world has taken. Things have an appearance because there is a “subject” and an “object”. People create things, and things are transformed to have a function, thus taking on their present appearances. So, the “subject and object” refers to [the process of] how we come into contact with things daily. So, “Since Beginningless Time, that which has originally existed and does not arise out of causes and conditions is known as unconditioned phenomena.”

Those things which have originally existed since Beginningless Time and do not arise out of causes and conditions are known as unconditioned phenomena. They are free from contrived thinking. They are beyond thoughts of craving and desire.

These are things that have always existed; humans did not contrive them, nor are they things that were created. They have always existed; humans did not need to create them. “They are free from contrived thinking. They are beyond thoughts of craving and desire.” There is no contrived thinking [behind them].

The Sutra of Infinite Meanings also says this. In this sutra that we often recite, [it says] “With meditative and still minds, they remain constantly in the state of Samadhi. They are peaceful, content, uncontriving and free from desires.”

This is what it ways in the Sutra of Infinite Meanings. So, if our minds always remain in a state of tranquility and stillness, external things will not entice us. Forms, appearances and names are all things contrived by humans. Those things which our minds never created are all forms kind appearances that belong to the natural world. As things are created, they take on infinite appearances and names. If people’s minds remain tranquil and still, then things wail retain their natural [form]. Earth will remain earth, water will remain water. Things will retain their original forms. This is when there are no causes and conditions for anyone to crème things from them. This all depends upon whether people’s minds can be tranquil and still or not. Are we unmoving and without discursive thoughts? Then we will not create so many things. So, if our minds did not have so many desirous thoughts, then naturally in our daily living, we would [simply] do what we need to do. Beyond that, we would not take issue over things or try to obtain things. Then, our minds would naturally remain quiet, calm and peaceful.

They would be “uncontriving and free from desires”. Without so many desirous thoughts in our minds, everything would be in its natural state. This is what “unconditioned” means. “Unconditioned” means that things are very natural. There are no “subjects” to create anything, nor “objects” to be created. There are none of these. We must be very mindful of appearance and non-appearance; [this] is what we will be looking at next. The [meaning of] conditioned and unconditioned is what we must mindfully seek to comprehend.

The previous sutra passage says, “As for those who monger meat for a living or traffic in the desire for female beauty, when it comes to people like these, they do not draw near to them”.

Killing living beings for a living is something we cannot do! These are environments that we should never seek to enter into. “Trafficking in the desire for female beauty” refers to sex trade. This goes against our ethics, so this is also impermissible. Places full of sexual desires like these are also places we should avoid. “When it comes to people like these, [we] “do not draw near to them”. There are also those who “engage in brutal or dangerous combat”, in these kinds of dangerous games. Those kinds of [behaviors], seeking pleasures and lust, are what we must never draw near to.

As for those who engage in brutal and dangerous combat or other kinds of sports and amusements and lascivious women and the like, they do not draw near to them at all. They never go alone into secluded places to expound the Dharma for women. When expounding the Dharma, they do so without joking or laughing. When they go to the village to beg for food, they take another bhiksu with them. Or if there is no bhiksu with them, they focus their minds on the Buddha.

It also says, “They never go alone into secluded places to expound the Dharma for women”. Relationships between men and women should be very proper. We should not involve ourselves in love affairs or find ourselves alone in dark corners, for we may easily incite resentment and criticism or cause suspicion to arise in other and so on. in the world, affairs between men and women often cause familial or societal problems, resulting in a great deal of unhappiness. Furthermore, many calamities in the world happen because of such things. So, we should be mindful and attentive when it comes to our affections. When teaching the Dharma to a women, we must have a very proper demeanor and be in a public place. As we previously discussed, we should not casually involve ourselves with others. If we go into the countryside or to villages to spread the Dharma, we should never go alone; we need a companion. If there is no one to accompany us, then we must always keep our minds on the Buddha and be self-disciplined. We must remain very proper. We must always remain very dignified and never be frivolous. These are the Buddha’s reminders for us.

“These are known as the places of practice and the places to draw near to. By abiding in these two places, they can teach with peace and joy”.

If we can avoid interpersonal conflicts, then, when we want to spread the Dharma, we can go to these places and be very safe as we spread the Dharma. Then those who hear the Dharma can use it, and those who teach the Dharma will be joyful! In our dealings with others, we will be in accord with the Dharma every day. We will always be very peaceful and joyful.

The next passage says, “Furthermore, they do not practice the superior, middle or limited teachings, nor the conditioned or the unconditioned, nor real or unreal phenomena. Nor do they differentiate between men and women”. We must be sure to understand this clearly. In terms of “the conditioned”, as we just mentioned, “That which is created is the worldly Dharma”. This is the “unreal”.

People put their heart into designing things, transforming natural resources to have certain appearances, with certain functions and certain names. All of these things are in the world because they were “created”. Thus, these things and objects exist in the world. Because these things exist, naturally disputes will arise over them. This is a true principle. So, when it comes to these things that have been created, will they exist forever? No, they will not. They undergo the process of creation, so they will also decay in time. Ultimately, they will return to “emptiness”.

No matter what, material things in the world will decay and become unusable. This is what makes them “unreal”. Even things mindfully designed and produced will be scrapped in the end. Thus, they are “unreal”. Anything in the world that has been created is [ultimately] insubstantial] and will lose its function. Thus, they are “unreal”. What about the “unconditioned”?

Unconditioned: This refers to the world-transcending Dharma. Thus, it is known as “unconditioned”. The meaning behind the essence and nature of all phenomena is the Dharma-nature. Its essence is true and ever-abiding. This is the ultimate reality of True Suchness.

The “unconditioned Dharma” is the “world-transcending Dharma”. [This means] it is not a worldly creation. We must help everyone to understand it principles clearly. Its principles are without form, substance or appearance. We must help everyone understand them clearly. In our own consciousness, in our minds we should be able to differentiate thing very clearly and playing distinguish right from wrong. If we have a bad temper, then how do we go about changing it? [We must examine] how we treat people and matters. This is a principle. Principles are without form or appearance. We can speak of them, but “they are beyond the reach of language”. When we speak about them, those who accept them must quickly absorb them, take them to heart and put them into action. When the person speaking has expressed them, these invisible principles which lack a form that can be put into worlds will enter our ears and abide in our hearts so we can make use of them in our daily living. We can make use of firm” the principles are for us to apply, even though they have no form or appearance. By absorbing them and applying them, we can transform and purity or thoughts so that our consciousness can become very clear. We can make use of them in lifetime by learning how to benefit people. Then, in our future lifetimes, though we cannot bring anything along when we die, we will retain our karmic consciousness with very put karma in subsequent lifetimes. This is what it means [when we say that] someone is “well-read from a previous life”. Although [these principles] are formless, they are nevertheless the essence and nature of all phenomena. We take this essence and nature of all phenomena, condense it and then use language to describe it. This is what spreading the Dharma is like. However, our methods for creating external things are like this as well, since [methods] also lack a form or appearance.

How are things created? Master craftspeople pass down their methods. However, these methods are invisible; we must be very mindful as we learn them. Once we learn how, we can also carefully design and create things. This is the same principle so, we apply the Dharma in bringing purity to people’s minds. This is what the Buddha-Dharma is for. Worldly teachings are passed from masters down to their apprentices, their methods of producing things. There are worldly teachings. [We must] spread the Buddha-Dharma, [but] it has no form or appearance. When others teach it to us, we can absorb it into our hearts and use it to transform our minds. Our cluttered minds will be transformed and [able to engage in] “calm contemplation”. [The Dharma] can help us our minds and correct our thoughts so we can guide others in the right direction. This is the Buddha-Dharma; it is the “world-transcending Dharma.”

[Next, it talks about] “the meaning behind the essence and nature of all phenomena.” The essence and nature of al phenomena provide us with many teachings. In terms of worldly teachings, there is the law of arising and ceasing. When it comes to world-transcending teachings, it is the Dharma-nature. The Dharma-nature is passed down like this. “Its essence is true and ever-abiding.” The Dharma-nature is ever-abiding; it will always exist. We can make use of it during this lifetime, and in our subsequent lifetimes, it will be deeply embedded in our consciousness. In the same way, this Dharma will remain forever. It is not like worldly phenomena, which, after being created, will ultimately decay over time. It is not like that. It is everlasting and ever-abiding. Because of this, its essence is “true and ever-abiding”. Can we say that it has essence? We cannot. But if we really want to talk about its essence, this essence is the Dharma we make use of. When we apply the Dharma [in our minds], we transform our own thoughts. As we apply the Dharma, it neither increases nor decreases. When we teach it to others, it remains the same; it neither increases nor decreases. It does not have form or appearance. Thus, it is ever-abiding.

This is the same principle. When transmitting worldly teachings, the [methods] for creating things, these will eventually disappear. The skills passed down from an experienced master may be wonderful, but [one day] we may no longer need to use our teacher’s methods. Then, once our teacher is gone, his skills will be lost, they will disappear. These are [worldly] “teachings”. Worldly teachings will eventually all disappear, as will the things that they were used to create. They will all decay. This is the nature of “worldly teachings”. But the Buddha-Dharma will never increase nor decrease. When we teach it, we do not lose anything. When we apply it, we can gain even more. Once we understand it, when we encounter other circumstances, we can comprehend their [underlying] principles. As we listen to the principles, [in our minds], they will begin to converge with worldly matters. As the Dharma increases in your heart, you will understand even more. And what about for me? It does not increase nor decrease in me. After I teach it, the words have left [my mouth], but the Dharma within me does not decrease, I have lost nothing. This is because the Dharma is everlasting. So, “Its essence is true and ever-abiding. This is the ultimate realty of true Suchness. This is True Suchness, it is the ultimate reality. “Furthermore, they do not practice the superior, middle or limited teachings.”

Furthermore, they do not practice the superior, middle or limited teachings: The Six Paramitas of Bodhisattvas are called the superior teachings. The practices the Solitary Realizers are called the middle teachings. The Four Noble Truths of the Hearers are called the limited teachings. They do not practice: if do not the path to Buddhahood, then we must not practice it. Since we do not practice this Dharma, we do not act on it and are not attached to it.

Moreover, we must pay close attention to what are the superior, middle and limited teachings. The Six Paramitas of Bodhisattvas are “superior teachings”. “The practices of the Solitary Realizers are called the “middle teachings”. What the Hearers practice are the Fore Noble Truths. These are the “limited teachings”. These are the Dharma of the Great, Middle and Small [Vehicle], which are the superior, middle and limited teachings.

They are the same. The limited teachings are the Small Vehicle. The middle teachings are the Middle Vehicle. The superior teachings are the Bodhisattva Vehicle. These can also be called the superior, middle and limited teachings. “They do not practice” these. So, if it is “not the path to Buddhahood, then we must not practice it.” There are many complicated paths in the world. Besides the Three Vehicles, there are also non-Buddhist teachings. [These are] “not the path to Buddhahood, so we must not practice them.

“Since we do not practice this Dharma, we do not act on it and are not attached to it.” This means that if it is not the Buddha-Dharma, then we should not draw near it.

We preciously talked about deviant views and the many other teachings that we should not draw near to. We do not draw near to them. Though the Dharma may be present in them, if those we teach do not have mature [causes and conditions], we should not force ourselves upon them. We just mentioned that we must be vigilant and not do near them. Even if they are [familiar with] the Dharma, we should not force our giving upon them. The time is not yet right; their causes and conditions have not yet matured, and our strength is insufficient. So, we should not do it. This is what was said previously. We must heighten our vigilance, if it is not the Buddha-Dharma, we should not draw near to it. If the situation is not right, then we should not enter into it. Even if the Dharma is present, we should not go and make use of it, so there is no need to get hung up on it. So, “[We] are not attached to it. We do not act on it.” Since we are unable to do anything at that time, we must put it aside; there is no use clinging to it. Some, “when trying to transform sentient beings, are instead transformed by sentient beings.” We dare not try to transform them. If we do not feel comfortable in that place, then we should let it go for the time being and wait for the right moment, when causes and conditions are mature. If we cannot do it, we must not force it.

Recently, for example, we heard of many calamities around the world. Upon evaluation, [we find that] roads are still impassable and bridges are broken. Or certain countries may be in turmoil and so on, so we cannot get to those places yet. All of these situations are beyond our means, so we cannot force them. There is no use in worrying over this. We must put it aside for the time being.

Worldly matters are like this too! So, there is “the conditioned and the unconditioned”. The meaning of “conditioned” is “phenomena that arise and cease”.

Conditioned: This refers to phenomena that arise and cease. This is the worldly law of cause and effect, the Dharma for humans and heavenly beings regarding samsara and the karma of suffering. Unconditioned: This refers to phenomena that neither arise nor cease. This is the Nirvana of emptiness and tranquility, the Dharma of skillful means for Small Vehicle practitioners.

As we have mentioned before, a mound of earth, a mountain, may be very beautiful. But because of things that people need, the mountain’s form is destroyed. Things contained within the mountain are continually excavated by people, including the earth itself. Within the earth, there may be copper, gold, silver or tin, many kinds of metals. People are constantly involved in extracting them. Originally, there was a mountain with many substances inside of it. Humans constantly think of ways to extract [the materials] contained within. We often talk about how advanced modern technology is. These advanced things are [produced by] destroying the Earth in order to extract the substances required in high-technological [products]. This has resulted in great destruction. So, when we use these things, we must cherish them. We must truly cherish these things so that we do not need to continually replace them. Phasing our [old models] produces constant waste. This is how our Earth, the natural world, is being continuously destroyed.

So, phenomena which “arise and cease” are “conditioned”. Nature is inherently very abundant. But because of its great abundance, it is also suffering so much destruction. Thus, it is being destroyed and disappearing. We destroy “that” to create “this”. Mountains and rivers are being totally destroyed in order to create so many things that we all use for our own convenience. So, this is “the worldly law of cause and effect, the Dharma for humans and heavenly beings regarding samsara and the karma of suffering.” Here, it helps us understand that because they are “conditioned,” these phenomena “arise and cease”. Through all this destruction, we produce the many things that human beings use. This is the process. And the result? Because of the karmic law of cause and effect. Earth is now fighting against its destruction. Thus, [we see] many natural disasters and imbalance in the climate. The world is filled with disasters. Thus, nature, with an extended downpour of rain, can destroy an entire village. This is cause and effect, “the Dharma for humans and heavenly beings regarding samsara and the karma of suffering”. These are “conditioned” [phenomena]. We must be very mindful of this.

So, what about “unconditioned”? These are “phenomena that neither arise nor cease”. They neither arise nor cease. The Dharma has always been like this; no matter how much of it we teach, it never decreases for those who teach it. For those who hear it and can make use of it, it only “increases,” increases their wisdom-lives, their wisdom, ceaselessly, without end. “By grasping one truth, we understand all truths”. With a single teaching, for everyone who hears it, their [experiences] are different, so they take it in differently. This is because their understanding is different.

What we hear in our morning volunteer assembly is very important. Our doctors, nurses and medical technicians all come and share with us! For example, when Vice Superintendent Chian shared about his medical [cases], he changed the subject and said, “This is what Master taught early this morning!” When Superintendent Chao shared, it was the same. “Why is this person sick?” He examined the patient’s liver, and after his examination, the patient asked him, “Will there be a morning Dharma lecture again tomorrow morning?” “Why do you ask me that?” As it turned out, he had a [special] affinity. This man was 40 years old and drank so much that his liver was ruined. After a lifetime of being drunk, he had reached this state. But he had a [special] affinity. Superintendent Chao continued to ask him to recount his [story] in detail. He found out that not long ago, this man had found a pigeon. The pigeon had a band around its leg so people would know who the owner was. Through an act of goodwill, he brought the pigeon home and, using the band around its leg, he found out the owner’s [information] and called the owner. It turned out that the owner’s relative was a Tzu Chi volunteer. When this volunteer heard the story, he thought, “How kind of this person to save the pigeon and even give a call!” He went to see him and discovered that this man liked to drink. So, he began to interact with him, hoping to help him quit drinking. He organized a team of Dharma-sisters and Dharma-brothers to care for him. This was how this man came to know Tzu Chi, and this was why he wished to quit drinking. This was how he came to visit the doctor and asked him, “Do you listen to the Dharma in the morning?”

Through these causes and conditions, after coming into contact with the Buddha-Dharma at this medical [center], [through] this situation, his wisdom will increase. These causes and conditions brought him here. It is true! This is what we mean by causes and conditions, “the Dharma of causes and conditions”.

So what about “unconditioned [phenomena]”? “They neither arise nor cease.” They do not arise, nor do they cease. Thus, “the Nirvana of emptiness and tranquility [is] the Dharma of skillful means for Small Vehicle practitioners”. These Two Vehicle practitioners seek the ability to achieve liberation; they dare not return to this world. So, when it comes to “real or unreal phenomena,” we must seek to mindfully understand them.

Nor real or unreal phenomena: “Real” refers to real phenomena that possess real substance. This is [the view of] the school of existence which clings to [the idea that] all phenomena have true existence. “Unreal” refers to what is defined as illusory phenomena apart from real substance. This is [the view of] the school of emptiness. These two views of emptiness and existence do not belong to the Buddha Vehicle. Those who seek the path to Buddhahood must not practice them.

‘“Real’ refers to real phenomena that possess real substance”. [Those who believe this] “cling [to the idea] [that] all phenomena have true existence”. When it comes to these teachings, if we try to make use of them, [we are like] Small Vehicle practitioners, the Hearers and the Solitary Realizers. They believe that through such teachings, by clinging to teachings like these, they can be liberated in this lifetime and enter Nirvana. This is being “attached to real phenomena”. And what about “unreal phenomena”? This is [being attached to] illusory phenomena apart from [any] real substance. This is [the view of] the school of emptiness. There are “two views of emptiness and existence”. There is “emptiness,” and there is “existence”. Neither of these “belong to the Buddha Vehicle”. These are not the ultimate Buddha-Dharma. “Those who seek the path to Buddhahood must not practice them.” If we truly seek the path to Buddhahood, we should not practice these. “Nor do they differentiate between men and women.”

Nor do they differentiate between men and women: This means they have no attachments with regard to sentient beings. The Buddha-Dharma is impartial and applies universally to all. There is no need to discriminate between men and women.

In fact, all sentient beings are equal. Why does the sutra keep saying earlier that we should not draw near to women or pandakas? Sentient beings are all equal, so it is merely their worldly appearances that cause desire and afflictions to arise in people’s minds. [These] are what we must guard against. So, actually, to be very clear about this, there is no distinction between men and women. Take the dragon girl for example. Although she was young and had a female body, she transformed her body and went south to attain Buddhahood. So, we must understand this thoroughly. There are no differences in our Buddha-nature; everyone is equal. “This means they have no attachments with regard to sentient beings.” “The Buddha-Dharma is impartial and applies universally to all.” There are no distinctions between humans and animals and so on, so it “applies universally to all.” We should not have expectations or discriminating thoughts. If we can [rid ourselves of them], then naturally, every day our lives will be [immersed] in the Buddha-Dharma. When it comes to the “real” and the “unreal,” we must understand these things very clearly. As for “conditioned” and “unconditioned,” if we can understand them, we can understand the Buddha-Dharma as a whole. So, we must always be mindful!

(Source: Da Ai TV – Wisdom at Dawn program – Explanation by Master Chen-Yen)
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