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 20181115《靜思妙蓮華》一切有為 皆是生滅 (第1480集) (法華經·從地涌出品第十五)

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20181115《靜思妙蓮華》一切有為 皆是生滅 (第1480集) (法華經·從地涌出品第十五) Empty
發表主題: 20181115《靜思妙蓮華》一切有為 皆是生滅 (第1480集) (法華經·從地涌出品第十五)   20181115《靜思妙蓮華》一切有為 皆是生滅 (第1480集) (法華經·從地涌出品第十五) Empty周四 11月 15, 2018 5:48 am

20181115《靜思妙蓮華》一切有為 皆是生滅 (第1480集) (法華經·從地涌出品第十五)

⊙一切有為法,即是生滅法。若能見生者,方能知真滅,故欲知生滅,尤其應知生;一切生相,生所生時,不離因緣和合。
⊙念從心起,名為覺行之門,誦在口中,即是音聲之相。
⊙依因緣和合而有,稱為生;依因緣分散而無,稱謂滅。有生有滅,是有為法;不生不滅,是無為法。
⊙依中道思想,即一切有為法而生而滅,皆是假生、假滅法,不是實生實滅,若是實生實滅,便是無生無滅。
⊙「是諸大威德,精進菩薩眾,誰為其說法,教化而成就?從誰初發心?稱揚何佛法?受持行誰經?修習何佛道?」《法華經從地涌出品第十五》
⊙「如是諸菩薩,神通大智力,四方地震裂,皆從中涌出。世尊我昔來,未曾見是事,願說其所從,國土之名號。」《法華經從地涌出品第十五》
⊙「我常遊諸國,未曾見是眾,我於此眾中,乃不識一人,忽然從地出,願說其因緣。」《法華經從地涌出品第十五》
⊙我常遊諸國,未曾見是眾,我於此眾中,乃不識一人:我住等覺,常遊十方,未見是眾;我更不識眾中一人。
⊙忽然從地出,願說其因緣:請示於佛說如是因緣。我所經之國,周遊亦多,是師或友,會亦不少,如斯之眾,不曾識一人,忽從地涌,不無因由,惟願說之。
⊙「今此之大會,無量百千億,是諸菩薩等,皆欲知此事。是諸菩薩眾,本末之因緣,無量德世尊,惟願決眾疑。」《法華經從地涌出品第十五》
⊙今此大眾樂聞是諸菩薩本末因由,不無有所各自因緣,由佛親口聖言一舉,方釋眾疑也。
⊙是諸菩薩眾,本末之因緣:是諸菩薩自本至末如上所問種種因緣。
⊙無量德世尊,惟願決眾疑:惟願大覺,萬德世尊,請為菩薩大眾解決此疑情,不存有疑念。

【證嚴上人開示】
一切有為法,即是生滅法。若能見生者,方能知真滅,故欲知生滅,尤其應知生;一切生相,生所生時,不離因緣和合。

一切有為法
即是生滅法
若能見生者
方能知真滅
故欲知生滅
尤其應知生
一切生相
生所生時
不離因緣和合

大家會感覺很深,所以要用心!「一切有為法,即是生滅法」。「有為法」,最近不斷提起「有為法」,也常常用「有為法」,希望大家能夠很熟悉,將這個名詞入心。這個名詞,其實是在我們日常生活中,開口動舌、起心動念,我們身心所接觸到的,根、塵、識所在緣的境界,我們的心,無不都是在這些境界中。我們要去選擇,我要做這項事情、我要去計畫那項事情,不論是你在做了,或者是在規畫了,不離開有為法。有為法就是一切萬法有所作為,我們能夠去做的,塵、根所接觸的,全部都在有為法之中。不論是你的五根,或者是你的五識,或者是外面的五塵,不斷在接觸,去有所作為,這叫做「有為法」──有所作為的事情。但是這些事情,這全都是「生滅法」。

常常聽到大家都朗朗上口,「一切有為法,如夢幻泡影」。這不就是大家很熟悉,《金剛經》裡面簡單的語言,含藏著就是「一切皆空」的道理呢?是啊,一切法終歸於空。人間,在天與聖人、佛的境界裡,那是很短暫,在他們的時間、他們的心境,來看我們人間,就像我們人間,在看那小蟲系統的世界一樣;牠們的生命、牠們的作為、牠們的世界都是很短暫,蚊蟲等等,牠們的生命是短暫的。天人來看我們人間的生命,當然是很短暫。我們常常在說,忉利天的一天,我們的一輩子活不到(百歲),因為人要到一百歲的,不多。所以忉利天的一日,是我們人間的一百年。它還未過一天,我們早就已經去了,又來了,兩世、三世,不一定都做人。

這三世,在天堂的一天,我們這三世到底我們做什麼?是在畜生道了呢?或者是去地獄道呢?或者是再回來做人呢?不知道。只是你懂道理嗎?你若懂道理,守持五戒,那你就是一定會再來做人;而你若是守持十善,而且這個十善行得好,那人間享受,或者是更好,就是天人的福了。這就要看我們,對道理透徹了解、身體力行,是不是很盡心力呢?所以人人求天,生天去,那就要行十善了。所以我們要好好用心,人生是短暫的,一切有所為,你所造作的到底是造惡?惡,地獄、畜生、餓鬼,這也是有所作為的法,將來的去處。而你也能夠有所作為,另外一種的作為就是為善;善,修十善法,極善修在天福。而我們若是覺得,天雖然壽長、享受多,但是到天堂去,我們就沒有機會接觸佛法了。真理不在天上,佛法也不用一定要去天上,因為天上的人多是在享受,沒有苦難。

諸佛發心願,就是要拯救苦難眾生。人間沒有很快樂,有苦。而地獄呢?沒有快樂,也是很苦,苦得佛法無法在地獄,因為地獄的眾生,隨著因緣果報在地獄,根本那個地方,沒有空間能夠讓佛法入地獄去。因為那些眾生,是因緣受報的眾生,你到那個地方,他就是一直苦、苦、苦,苦得沒有因緣。沒有因緣就是沒有那個空間,沒有那個因緣得以接受法。天堂,樂、樂、樂,也是樂得沒有空間可接受佛法。唯有人間苦中還有樂,有苦、有樂,在這當中佛法能夠進來,見證苦難,讓大家了解,這就是苦!苦的因緣是如何來?這是樂,樂的因緣是如何修?有這個空間可接受教化。

就像我們人,為什麼同樣在人間,有的人所受的教育會那麼的好?那就是因為有那個空間。有的人雖很刻苦耐勞,都要完成他的孩子能夠讀書,受很高的教育;有的很有錢,但是孩子本身就沒很想要受教,所以雖然有錢,他也是沒有那個空間,得以去接受教育。所以有空間、沒有空間,這叫做有因緣嗎?沒有因緣等等,所以一切在有為法中。所以,有為法,是看人的心念和那個境界,和我們的根、塵造作,這種的因緣來會合。所以,有這樣的緣會合,就有生滅法;有和合起來,那就「生」了。固然會合了,是不是永遠存在呢?即使有因緣去求學,是不是讀六年的,就永遠在那六年級呢?當然不是。還有因緣可以中學,還有因緣可以大學,他也是一直在進步。過程,過去的捨去了,沒有了;我現在不是小學生,我也不是中學生,我是大學生。我這個大學生,是不是永遠在大學生?沒有,我已經博士了。而博士,常常在那裡當博士嗎?要入人群去就業,看你做什麼事情,你是成就什麼。

這是成功的人生,隨著因緣生滅,有這個因緣讓你去完成,你這個因緣就有過程,過程過去了,就是滅了。再有因緣,你又有成長起來了,這也是順利的生滅法,也是這樣一直過去!但是,一直生啊、生啊,生到盡頭是什麼呢?對,不離開時間,時間成就一切,時間在這個空間成就人間。所以,人間這個生命,隨著這樣的時間,就這樣成就、成就,到達最極,老、病、死,沒有了,還是人生完了。這一輩子幾十年,現在,就是六十歲、六十五歲、七十歲,一定要退休了,你的功能、權力不見了,再下來就是白過的人生。白過的人生又有多久呢?沒有多久,那就是結束。這不就是人生有為法?有所作為,林林總總全都將它想進去,哪一天是常常在那裡?沒有啊!我剛才出來的時間,和現在的時間,不同的時間。所以,時間是分秒遷變,我們的生活有所作為的,也是不斷在生滅。我們剛才所說的話,只是「念從心起」,念從心起,名叫做「覺行之門」,這是在名相來說。

念從心起
名為覺行之門
誦在口中
即是音聲之相

而「誦在口中」,講話在口中,「即是音聲之相」。這就是我們一天的時間,都是心念在起,我們在走、在進行,關關卡卡的門道我們都在過。說話,剛才說的,你們聽進去,聽進去的語言、音聲消滅掉了,沒有了。這在聽,大、小聲,你們的分別,「太小聲了,若能夠較大聲,我會聽得較清楚」、「太大聲了,很吵」,聲音也是在分別的相。

所以,「聲」是一個相,「念」是一個門,你的心門打開,開始你的心念就一直出來,這都是在剎那、飛秒中,這樣閃過去。我想到這個念頭,我就隨口說出,就是這樣的語言,就是這個相,就是你們聽進去。所以聽過去的,有為的法,是人說的,發出的聲音,這也有為。所以,有為的法在這個生滅中,所以生滅法。「若能見生者,方能知真滅」。我們若了解,知道這些形象都從哪裡來,這些門道是如何出來的,這些相是如何過,這就能夠很清楚。它在出來這個時候,念頭如何出來?聲音構成是解釋什麼樣的意義,很多道理、意義從聲音出來。這個聲音是從念頭起,這個念頭和聲音是如何出來的?這些若能夠清楚了,就是「見生者」,很清楚。我們了解了,就是「方能知真滅」,我們就知道那個生的源頭,生滅法那個源頭,真相的生,真實的滅。

所以我們一直在說,寂靜涅槃,涅槃寂靜的道理是在哪裡?它就是要透徹這些道理,我們的心才能夠寂靜下來,寂靜清澄。你若不透徹這些生滅相,我們常常就有執著、有掛礙。所以,「故欲知生滅,尤其應知生」,我們若想要知道「生滅法」,真實的「生滅法」,我們才更要了解,那個「生」的源頭,真實的源頭。真實的源頭在哪裡呢?真如本性。我們一定要清楚。所以,「一切生相,生所生時」。一切所生的形相,不論你外面的外塵是什麼塵境,它都有「生」的開頭,所以那些生相。我們反觀自己,我們也有「生」的生相,從一念,就開始發於聲音;這個觀念,念的理,道理是從哪裡來?這我們若能夠清楚。一切的生相,「生所生時」,那些生相所生之時,那一念是如何起?不離開就是因緣和合。

所以,你們要了解因緣和合,我們才有辦法,透徹有為法、生滅法,這樣我們才能夠很清楚。所以,我們一定要在這個,如何的因緣產生,如何來會合,等等,若能夠清楚,那道理就是很分明了,這些道理無體、無相,回歸於寂靜清澄,就沒有什麼。所以,「依因緣和合而有,稱為生」。

依因緣和合而有
稱為生
依因緣分散而無
稱謂滅
有生有滅
是有為法
不生不滅
是無為法

我們一切的東西、一切的聲色、形相,人與人之間歡喜、擔心等等,不離開這些因緣和合,所以生起了喜怒哀樂、愛恨情仇,無不都是這些東西。所以,「依因緣分散而無,稱謂滅」。這個因緣分散,到頭來什麼都沒有了,人的生、老、病、死,到最後這個身體,化為零、化為灰,沒有了,這叫做「滅」。人生世間,有形的身體是這樣;無形,也是一樣為「滅」。所以,「有生有滅,是有為法」。這些全都是「有為法」,包括在生、住、異、滅,或者是成、住、壞、空,這全都是「有為法」。這最短的就是生、住、異、滅,最長的是成、住、壞、空。所以不論是長短,都是有生、有滅。「不生不滅,是無為法」,那就是回歸真理了,無所掛礙,「無罣礙故,無有恐怖」,回歸真理,這就是一切也是依因緣。

所以,在中道的「思向」,我們若向中道來說,「即一切有為法而生而滅」,其實是很短暫。

依中道思想
即一切有為法
而生而滅
皆是假生、假滅法
不是實生實滅
若是實生實滅
便是無生無滅

是生是滅?我們若能夠了解,世間不斷在生滅中,剎那生滅,我們是在生滅的空間;光速也在生滅,非常快速快速一直閃過去。所以我們沒有感覺,什麼時候天亮,什麼時候天暗,因為它很快,這樣不斷在閃過,所以我們不知覺。所以,「一切有為法,而生而滅」,不斷地生滅,道理是在這裡。「皆是假生」,就是假相這樣一直過。我們這個身體是假相,「青春永駐」,這是形容詞,難道真的青春永駐嗎?記得幾十年前,那時候也是青春,今何在呢?「住」在那裡呢?忽然間,幾十年後看到,「怎麼會變這樣!臉皮都皺了,你怎麼這麼老!」「你想,幾十年了。」「是哦。」這就是生滅。「皆是假生、假滅法」,這個生滅法,這全都是假相。

「不是實生實滅」。我們所看到的,假生、假滅,也不是真實生,也不是真實滅,因為我們捨此還要再投彼,由不得自己。今生來,無常的人生,這樣天堂一日還未過,我們就又來生了,這短短幾十年,所以由不得自己又再來了。所以,它若真滅了,我們就不用再來;想要不用再來,就是要我們自己如何修行,我們懂得選擇,我們再來是要做什麼。這就是要先透徹道理,若不知道理,我們就隨著假生滅,這樣在過日子,隨著境讓它們左右,隨境而生愛、恨、情、仇,隨境而生在歡喜、苦難中。這就是我們人生迷了,不知道「不是實生實滅」,但是我們就是這樣,懵懂在過日子。

「若是實生實滅,便是無生無滅」。「實生實滅」,那就是「無生無滅」,不是不由自己來生,是我發願要來生的。這種發願而來,和那隨業轉生是不同。所以,我們若要發願而來,這個生得有意義,我們就要趕緊探討道理。真正的道理不是人家如何說,我們就這樣,就是了。如何說,佛陀如何說,也要我們自己如何想;要想得清楚,真實的道理,我們這條路要如何開。方向是知道,但是道是我們自己要開,這是自己若不肯用功,也是「無法度」。所以,我們最近在說的,希望能夠回歸我們那個真實法,所以就要用較長的時間讓大家更知道。這個「本」到底是什麼?我們現在回歸經文。

前面的經文,就是這樣說:「是諸大威德,精進菩薩眾,誰為其說法,教化而成就?從誰初發心?稱揚何佛法?受持行誰經?修習何佛道?」

是諸大威德
精進菩薩眾
誰為其說法
教化而成就
從誰初發心
稱揚何佛法
受持行誰經
修習何佛道
《法華經從地涌出品第十五》

我們前面已經都說過了,彌勒菩薩代替大眾來問,這麼多菩薩如何來的?來的是什麼因緣?是受什麼樣的教法,能夠去教導那麼多人?這些人的因緣,

所以,再一段的文說:「如是諸菩薩,神通大智力,四方地震裂,皆從中涌出。世尊我昔來,未曾見是事,願說其所從,國土之名號。」

如是諸菩薩
神通大智力
四方地震裂
皆從中涌出
世尊我昔來
未曾見是事
願說其所從
國土之名號
《法華經從地涌出品第十五》

這就是彌勒菩薩在敘述:「這些菩薩神通廣大,我常常到處在說法,我也到處在度眾生,我怎麼會不曾看到這些人呢?也不曾聽到這些人的名稱,這些人住在哪裡呢?他們是從哪裡來,我怎麼都不認識半個人呢?」就是向佛陀請教,請佛陀介紹這些人,到底是如何來的,他們有什麼因緣能夠這麼莊嚴,能夠這麼有德相,是什麼因緣讓他們成就呢?

下面接下來再說:「我常遊諸國,未曾見是眾,我於此眾中,乃不識一人,忽然從地出,願說其因緣。」

我常遊諸國
未曾見是眾
我於此眾中
乃不識一人
忽然從地出
願說其因緣
《法華經從地涌出品第十五》

彌勒菩薩就是這樣,自己自我這樣說:「我這樣跑這麼多地方,都不曾看到這些人,我在這些人之中,怎麼會都不認識半個人呢?」這是這樣的表達。因為彌勒菩薩他要表達的意思,他也是這樣表達他自己的身分,「等覺」,我也已經修行很久了。

彌勒菩薩修行多久了?記得古雷音王佛的時代,彌勒菩薩、釋迦菩薩,是同一位佛的道場修行,也是那位佛為釋迦牟尼佛授記。這兩位菩薩是什麼人先成佛呢?看起來,還是釋迦菩薩,釋迦菩薩與眾生所結的緣,已經很成熟了,他能夠成佛。而彌勒菩薩就是偏在自己,修自己的智慧,較少與眾生結緣,所以眾生緣未成熟。

所以,彌勒菩薩就要,在釋迦牟尼佛的後面才能夠成佛。這可見彌勒菩薩,修行以來也很久!是和釋迦佛同修過,同一個道場,同修行者,但是釋迦佛他先彌勒菩薩成佛。所以,彌勒菩薩他表達,「我住等覺」。其實他一切都已經成就,只是眾生緣還未成就,所以叫做「等覺」,在他的內涵已經圓滿了,只是這個因緣還未成熟。所以常常告訴大家,要結好眾生緣,就是在這裡。因為他是等覺菩薩,所以他到處在結眾生緣。

我常遊諸國
未曾見是眾
我於此眾中
乃不識一人:
我住等覺
常遊十方
未見是眾
我更不識眾中一人

「常遊十方,未見是眾」。什麼世界他都去,十方,一直去遊,也是去弘法,不曾看到這些人。「我更不識眾中一人」,在這麼多人之中,我不認得一個人。這就是表達彌勒菩薩他的心聲。

「忽然從地出,願說其因緣」。這些菩薩都是忽然間,這樣從地湧出,忽然間看到這些人,所以希望佛陀,您就要來說這些人的因緣。這是彌勒菩薩請示,說這些菩薩的來由,來的這個因由。

忽然從地出
願說其因緣:
請示於佛
說如是因緣
我所經之國
周遊亦多
是師或友
會亦不少
如斯之眾
不曾識一人
忽從地涌
不無因由
惟願說之

所以,「我所經之國」,這是彌勒菩薩,是周遊的地方是很多。「是師或友」,他所結的緣,所認識的人是很多,也有老師,也有朋友,很多。「會亦不少」,一場一場講演的法,也有老師,也有同學、有朋友,很多。「如斯之眾」,認識過這麼多,但是「不曾識一人」,現在這些人我都不認識。「忽從地涌,不無因由」。這些人忽然間這樣出來,絕對絕對是有因緣的,所以請釋迦佛,您來為他們訴說這些人,來為這些人,好好來為他們敘述,這些人來的目的,這些人來的因緣,從哪裡來。這是彌勒菩薩提出來,想要了解的。

接下來這段文又再說:「今此之大會,無量百千億,是諸菩薩等,皆欲知此事。是諸菩薩眾,本末之因緣,無量德世尊,惟願決眾疑。」

今此之大會
無量百千億
是諸菩薩等
皆欲知此事
是諸菩薩眾
本末之因緣
無量德世尊
惟願決眾疑
《法華經從地涌出品第十五》

現在這個大會有這麼多,「無量百千億」,這麼多人,看過去滿滿都是!以菩薩的眼光來看一切的空間,滿滿都是,「無量百千億」。「是諸菩薩」,都是菩薩,都是要聽法來的,都是護法的,所以全都叫做菩薩。「皆欲知此事」,大家就是很期待能夠了解,來的這些人的事情,他們的因緣,所以大家都很期待。這是會眾的數字,以及請問的目的。問這些人到底從哪裡來,大家,當場的人,大家都想要知道,這是大家的心願。所以,「今此大眾樂聞」。

今此大眾樂聞
是諸菩薩本末因由
不無有所各自因緣
由佛親口聖言一舉
方釋眾疑也

當場的人大家都很想要聽,很想要了解,這從地湧出這麼多菩薩的因緣,來的理由,有什麼樣的目的,有什麼樣的使命等等,大家都想要聽,「是諸菩薩本末」。這些菩薩他們的本末、他們的因緣、他們的來由,有什麼理由。「不無有所各自因緣」,相信這麼多這麼多,他們都各自有因緣。

是啊!每一個人都各自有因緣,每一尊菩薩同樣各自有因緣,就簡單,剛才說過了,釋迦菩薩他那麼的認真,不顧自己,都是為眾生,一直在和眾生結好緣,為眾生造福,這樣的因緣,他有他的因緣,所以他能夠很快,快在彌勒菩薩的前面成佛。彌勒菩薩,他的智慧已經很具足了,為什麼無法?古雷音王佛是這樣說:「因為眾生緣要具足較困難,個人要完成較簡單。」所以只是彌勒菩薩就是為個人,智慧都透徹、通徹,了解,精通了,都了解,佛法精通、智慧具足,可惜就是缺了眾生緣,所以古雷音王佛評估起來,要集合眾生緣困難,所以釋迦牟尼佛要成就自己較快。

在人群中取得了人群,一來結好緣,在人群中的煩惱,要如何煩惱中透徹了解道理,真正徹見道理的本源,也是不困難,不一定將自己獨善其身。所以,彌勒菩薩的因緣,釋迦佛的因緣,他們兩個人有各不同的因緣,兩個人就有不一樣的理念。一個人說:「我若自己成就之後,我再來度別人。」一個覺得:「我知道多少,就趕緊去幫助人;我所了解的,就是要去幫助人,所以我了解,了解,我就要去付出。」心態不同,所以那個成就也不同。

總而言之,這種因緣各人都不同,「不無有所各自因緣」,每個人都有各人的因緣。所以,「由佛親口聖言一舉,方釋眾疑」。彌勒菩薩的意思是:其實,我是知道,不過由我來說沒力。這些菩薩的因緣,我來說沒力,若是佛,釋迦佛您說一下,大家都相信。這就是表示釋迦佛,與這個人間的緣。我們要說得讓人相信,就是你要和他有緣,有緣的人說話句句是真理,無緣的人說話句句是非,這同樣的道理。所以,彌勒菩薩就請佛親口來說,說這些菩薩會來的因由;不是彌勒有疑,是代表其他的菩薩的心聲,來說話,也要表達出了這個因緣,釋迦佛和娑婆世界眾生的緣。這個緣,投緣說法,這就是表達。

是諸菩薩眾
本末之因緣:
是諸菩薩
自本至末
如上所問
種種因緣

「是諸菩薩眾,本末之因緣」。要說些菩薩,人人本末的因緣,這些菩薩是「自本至末」,從開始那個根本。「本」就是開始,從始到終,從本至末。「如上所問種種因緣」,希望這些菩薩本末的因緣,釋迦佛能夠從您的口中,將它解說出來,解說出這些人的因緣。

所以,「無量德世尊,唯願決眾疑」。就是彌勒菩薩,也是要表達他要尊重釋迦佛,因為畢竟釋迦佛是現在教主。儘管他們過去同修,但是佛成佛了,他還是菩薩,彌勒還是菩薩,所以他要尊重佛。這個尊重的禮節,要有禮、有理,前後次序,這個道理一定要有,這個禮節也一定要有。所以佛的世界、佛菩薩的世界,也同樣這樣,彌勒就要尊稱佛,「無量德世尊」。又再讚歎,世尊啊!您是無量的德,是世所尊重的。惟願,惟願大覺世尊,您能夠為這些大菩薩,來解決他們的疑問,不要再讓他們內心有所存疑,讓他們能夠解開,這個內心的疑問。知道菩薩的世界和佛的世界,這種的禮節我們也都是要這樣。

無量德世尊
惟願決眾疑:
惟願大覺萬德世尊
請為菩薩大眾
解決此疑情
不存有疑念

人生,一日的時間,生活在這根、塵、識,在根、塵、識之中。我們的「根」,要接觸到這個「塵」,我們的意識,我們的存念,我們的念頭要如何起?因為我們每一天心門要打開,打開我們這個念,從心起,這個念,看到人我們就要用禮節以相對,要有禮。而且我們要說的話,要問好,所以我們常常都說,看到人,「早安啊!」「午安啊!」「晚安!」先問個安,或者是道個好,「你好、你好」。事情做完,大家互相之後,「感恩,感恩」,禮節。不只是口誦,說出的語言,我們的心一開,我們的語言要出,全都是要好好說好話。而身呢?同樣要有禮節,這個禮節不能沒有;你入什麼樣的境界,就要表達你對那個境界的禮節,這就是道理。

所以身、口(業) ,從「意」出,這心門開了,我們一切的相,身、口,不論是身的動作,或者是口出的聲音,這都叫做「相」;「相」出在「意」,這個意就是念頭。心門開、念起,手動作、口出聲,這全都是在我們日常生活中,不能離開道理,道理就是在禮節的表態,這就是「相」。「理」是無形,「相」能夠表態出來,表現出來。所以我們「生滅法」要知道,「生滅法」是在「相」;「有相」和「無相」中,它內涵的道理,知道如何「生」、如何「滅」。其實生者非永生,沒有永生的,生上去天堂是不是永生呢?生上去天堂就是壽長,福享盡也要再墮落下來!這善、惡因緣會合,這個因緣很重要。

所以,造福者上天堂、享天福,造惡者下地獄、受苦難,這是因緣。我們的舉止動作做得對,我們會很歡喜;一項的舉止動作有偏差,我們的心會很懊惱,而且也造成了,我們一輩子的遺憾。這全都是平時在生滅間,那個生的開頭如何生?滅,終歸再哪裡去?我們就要好好很用心,用得來去自在、生滅清楚,能夠這樣,才是真正我們人生的目標。所以要時時多用心!


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Explanations by Master Cheng-Yan
Subject: All Conditioned Phenomena Arise and Cease (一切有為 皆是生滅)
Date: November.15.2018

“All conditioned phenomena are phenomena subject to arising and ceasing. Only when we see how something arises can we understand how it truly ceases. So if we wish to understand arising and ceasing, we should especially understand how things arise. For all appearances that arise, the timing of their arising is inseparable from the convergence of causes and conditions.”

Everyone must deeply understand this, so we must be mindful! “All conditioned phenomena are phenomena subject to arising and ceasing. Conditioned phenomena” is something we have repeatedly mentioned lately. We often use the phrase “conditioned phenomena”. I hope everyone can become familiar with and take this phrase to heart. This concept is in fact in our daily living. As we open our mouths to speak or give rise to the slightest thought, our bodies and minds encounter states that our Roots, Dusts and Consciousnesses connect to. Our minds are within these states. [In life,] we have to make choices. When we want to do this thing, or when we are planning to do something, whether we are in the process of doing it or are still planning it, all of these are inseparable from conditioned phenomena. Conditioned phenomena are all phenomena that we take action. All the things we are able to do and all the Dusts we encounter with our Roots are among the conditioned phenomena. Whether it is our Five Roots, our Five Consciousnesses or the external Five Dusts, when these continuously interact [with one another] and lead us to take actions, these are all called “conditioned phenomena”. These are all things we do.
But these things all [abide by] “the law of arising and ceasing”. We often hear people recite, “All conditioned phenomena are like a dream, an illusion, a bubble, a shadow.” Aren’t we all very familiar with these simple words from the Diamond Sutra that encompass the principle that “everything is empty in nature”? Indeed, all phenomena eventually return to emptiness. In the human realm, [compared to] the realm of heavenly beings, noble beings and the Buddha, [our time] is very short. When they use their time and mindset to look at our world, it is just like how we humans would view the world of insects. [In our eyes, insects’] lives, behaviors and their [lifespan in the] world are all very short. [Insects] such as mosquitoes have a very short lifespan. When heavenly beings look at the lifespan in the human realm, of course they will think that it is very short. We often say that one day in Trayastrimsa Heaven is longer than our lifetime [in the human realm]. This is because not many people can live to 100 years. One day in Trayastrimsa Heaven is equivalent to 100 years in our human realm. Before a day has passed [in heaven] our life will have already come to an end. When we return to the world again for the second or third lifetime, we may not be in human form.

These three lifetimes [may only be] one day in the heavens. What have we been doing in these three lifetimes? Were we in the animal realm? Did we go to the hell realm? Or did we return in human form? We do not know. But do we understand the principles? If we understand the principles and uphold the Five Precepts, then we will definitely return in human form. If we uphold the Ten Good Deeds and practice the Ten Good Deeds well, we can enjoy being in the human realm or, even better, enjoy the blessings of heavenly beings. This depends upon whether we understood the principles thoroughly and put them into practice with all our heart and all our efforts.

So, if we seek to go to heaven, then we must practice the Ten Good Deeds. We must put effort into being mindful. Life is very short. Of all contrived [actions], of the things that we do, are we doing evil? [If we do] evil deeds, [we will fall into] the hell, animal and the hungry ghost [realms]. These are also conditioned phenomena, [realms] we may go to in the future. We can also accomplish things. Another thing we can do is to do good deeds. We can also do the Ten Good Deeds, practicing the ultimate good to cultivate heavenly blessings. Although we may feel that the lifespan is longer and that there are many pleasures in heaven, if we go to heaven, we will have no chance to encounter the Buddha-Dharma. The true principles are not to be found in heaven. To [learn] the Buddha-Dharma, we do not necessarily have to go to heaven because heavenly beings are only enjoying pleasure without any suffering. All Buddhas make vows to relieve suffering sentient beings. In the human realm, there is not always happiness; there is also suffering. What about in hell? There is no happiness, only lots of suffering. There is so much suffering that the Buddha-Dharma cannot exist in hell. This is because the sentient beings in hell are there following the law of karma. At that place, there is simply no space for the Buddha-Dharma to enter. This is because those sentient beings are there suffering from karmic retributions. When they arrive at that place, they are constantly in suffering. They suffer so much that they do not have the affinities [with Dharma]. With no affinities, there is neither the environment nor the causes and conditions for them to accept the Dharma. In heaven, there is so much happiness that there is no environment for them to accept the Buddha-Dharma. Only in the human realm are there both happiness and suffering. With both happiness and suffering, the Buddha-Dharma can come in and [help everyone] witness suffering. It can help people understand suffering.

Where do the causes and conditions of suffering come from? [It can help them understand] joy. How do we cultivate causes and conditions for joy? [In the world], there is the environment [for people] to be transformed. This is like us human beings. Why is it that though we are all in the same world, some receive such a great education? This is because there is the environment [for them to lean]. Some people work very hard to help their children finish their studies and receive high education. Some people are rich, but their children have no desire to receive education in the first place. So, although they are rich, they do not have that environment to receive education. So, whether there is the environment or not is the same as whether there are the causes and conditions or not. So, all of these are conditioned phenomena. Conditioned phenomena depend on how our minds interact with the [external] states, how our roots interact with dusts and how the causes and conditions come together. So, when affinities converge, the law of arising and ceasing [takes effect]. When affinities converge, things arise. Although affinities converge, will they exist forever?

Even if they have the causes and conditions to study, will sixth graders remain in sixth grade forever? Of course not. They have the causes and conditions to go to middle school and even university. They are always advancing forward. In the process, the leave what was in the past; it is no longer there. “Now, I am no longer an elementary school student or a middle school student. I am now a college student. Being a college student, will I forever be a college student? No, I am a PhD student now. Will I be a PhD student forever? I must enter society to start a career.” Depending on what we do, our accomplishments will be different. This is the life of a successful person. We follow the arising and ceasing of causes and conditions. There are causes and conditions to help us accomplish things. With these causes and conditions, we will go through a process. After the process has ended, [the causes and conditions] then cease. When causes and conditions arise again, we will continue to develop. This is the law of arising and ceasing.

The process is always like this. But as [causes and conditions] keep arising, what is at the end of arising? [Causes and conditions] are inseparable from time; time can bring all things into fruition. Everything in this world is accomplished through time.
So, in our lifetime in this world, as time passes, we continue to accomplish things until we reach the highest point. We then age, get ill and die, and nothing remains. Our lifetime will still come to an end.

Our lifetime in this world is just a few decades. Now, when we are 60 years old, 65 or 70 years old, we must retire. Then, our function and authority [in society] will disappear, and we may idle our life away. How long will this idling life last? It will not be long before our life will end. Isn’t this the conditioned phenomena of life? For all the actions we take, when we take them all into consideration is there any that will be there any given day? No.

The time I came out earlier and the time now are different. So, time changes with every minute and second. The actions in our daily living are constantly arising and ceasing. The words we just talked about were all “thoughts [that] arose from the mind”. Thoughts arise from the mind and are called “the gateway to enlightened conduct”. This is in terms of names and appearances. “Recitation is done through speech.” When we speak, “It is the appearance of the sound.” Throughout the time we have in one day, the thoughts in our mind keep arising. As we are go through the day, we pass through gateways and doors one by one. This is like how when I speak, what I just said, you have taken in through listening. As you listened, the sound disappeared. When you listen to the sound, whether it is loud or quiet, you are able to differentiate it. “The sound is too low; if it can be louder, I can hear it more clearly. It is too loud, it is very noisy.” Sounds can also be appearances to differentiate. So, “the sound” is also an appearance, while “the thought” is a door. As we open the door to our minds, our thoughts begin to come out continuously. [These thoughts] will flash through.

In a moment, in less than a second. When I think this thought, I may say it right away. These will be the words, the appearances that you hear and take in. So, what we have heard is also conditioned phenomena; it was taught by people and spoken through their voices. These are also conditioned [phenomena]. So, conditioned phenomena arise and cease.

This is the law of arising and ceasing. “Only when we see how something arises can we understand how it truly ceases.” We must understand whether these appearances come from, how these doors appear and how these appearances pass. Then, we can clearly understand [how something arises]. When a thought arises, how does it come about? What do the sounds mean together? Many principles and meanings come from sound. This sound comes from a thought. How do the thoughts and sounds arise? If we can understand this clearly, we can “see how something arises”. When we clearly understand, “we can understand how it truly ceases”. We can understand the source of arising,
2018OK

3000We will follow our conditions and be amidst joy or suffering. Then, our life will be in confusion. We will not know that “This is not true arising and true ceasing.” Instead we will live our lives in confusion. “If there is true arising and ceasing, then there is neither arising nor ceasing. True arising and true ceasing means that there is “neither arising nor ceasing”. We will come to our next life on our own accord; we will come to our next life by our vows. Coming by our vows is different from transmigrating according to our karma. So, if we want to make vows to come [to the world] and make our lives meaningful, we must quickly explore the principles. True principles are not simply following what others said. Whatever the Buddha taught, we must also contemplate it ourselves. We must clearly contemplate the true principles and the way we should clear the path. We may know the direction, but we must clear the path ourselves. If we do not work hard ourselves, then we have “no Dharma to transform people”. So, we have been talking about this recently. I hope we can return to the True Dharma.

So, I must use more time to help everyone understand what the “intrinsic” is? Now, let us return to the sutra passage. The previous sutra passage states that “As to this group of diligent Bodhisattvas of great might and virtue, who expounded the Dharma for them and taught them until they reached attainment? Who helped them form initial aspirations? What Buddha-Dharma did they praise and promote? Whose sutra did they accept, uphold and practice? Which Buddha’s path did they cultivate and practice?”

We have talked about this previously Maitreya Bodhisattva asked [the Buddha] on behalf of the assembly, “How did so many Bodhisattva come here? What causes and conditions did they come with? What kind of teachings did they receive to teach and guide so many people?” [He asked about] their causes and conditions.

So, the next sutra passage continues with “These Bodhisattvas have spiritual powers and great power of wisdom. The ground in the four directions quaked and split open, World-Honored One, we have never seen anything like this before. We wish You would tell us the name of the land from whence they came.
This was Maitreya Bodhisattva speaking “These Bodhisattva have great spiritual powers. I often teach the Dharma around the world. I also transform sentient beings everywhere. Why is it that I have never seen these people? Why is it that I have never heard their names? Where do they live? Where do they come from? How could I not know any one of them?” He asked the Buddha for answers and asked Him to explain to him how these people came about. What causes and conditions did they have to have such a dignified [appearance], such a virtuous appearance? What causes and conditions helped them accomplish that?

The next sutra passage continues with, “I constantly travel to many lands, yet I have never seen this group. Among this group, I do not recognize even a single person. They suddenly emerged from the ground. I wish You would tell us their causes and conditions.”

This was how Maitreya Bodhisattva spoke on his own accord “I have traveled to so many lands, yet I have never seen these people. Among these people, how could I not recognize even a single person”. He expressed [his thoughts] like this. This was what Maitreya Bodhisattva wanted to express. He also expressed his identity [as a Bodhisattva of] equal enlightenment. I have engaged in spiritual practice for a long time.” How long did Maitreya Bodhisattva practice?

Remember? In Amonghasiddhi Buddha’s era, Maitreya Bodhisattva engaged in spiritual practice at the same Buddha’s spiritual training ground. It was that Buddha who bestowed predictions upon Sakyamuni Bodhisattva. Who would attained Buddhahood first among these two Bodhisattva? It appears that Sakyamuni Bodhisattva [would attain Buddhahood first]. The affinities that Sakyamuni Bodhisattva formed with sentient beings had matured. So, He was able to attain Buddhahood. Maitreya focused more on himself. He [focused on] cultivating his own wisdom and formed less affinities with sentient beings. So, his affinities with sentient beings were not yet mature. Thus, Maitreya Bodhisattva will attain Buddhahood after Sakyamuni Buddha. From this, we can see that Maitreya Bodhisattva also engaged in spiritual practice for a long time. He once engaged in spiritual practice along with Sakyamuni Buddha at the same spiritual training ground as fellow spiritual practitioners.

However, Sakyamuni Buddha attained Buddhahood before Maitreya Bodhisattva. So, Maitreya Bodhisattva expressed, “I abide in equal enlightenment”. In fact, he had accomplished everything except that affinities with sentient beings had not matured. So, this is called “equal enlightenment”. He was replete with virtues, but his causes and conditions had not matured yet. So, I often tell people to form good affinities with sentient beings; this is the reason why. As a Bodhisattva of equal enlightenment he forms affinities with sentient beings everywhere.

I constantly travel to many lands, yet I have never seen this group. Among this group, I do not recognize even a single person: Though I abide in equal enlightenment and constantly travel to the ten directions, I have never seen this group, nor recognize even a single person in the group.

“I constantly travel to the ten directions, [but] I have never seen this group.” He traveled to many different lands. He continuously traveled in all directions to spread the Dharma. He had never seen these people, nor “recognized even a single person in the group”. “Among all these people, I do not recognize even a single person.” This expressed Maitreya Bodhisattva’s thoughts. “They suddenly emerged from the ground. I wish You would tell us.” These Bodhisattva suddenly emerged from the ground. [Maitreya] suddenly saw these people. So, he hoped the Buddha would talk about their causes and conditions. Maitreya Bodhisattva asked the Buddha to tell him these Bodhisattvas’ origins, the reason why they came.

They suddenly emerged from the ground, I wish You would tell us their causes and conditions: He requested the Buddha to tell them the causes and conditions. The lands he had passed through and the places that he had traveled to were many. Whether teachers or friends, those whom he had met were also many. In this group, he had never met any single person. They suddenly emerged from the ground. There had to be a cause for this. He wished the Buddha would tell them what it was.

So, “the lands he passed through describes how Maitreya Bodhisattva had traveled to many places. Whether teachers or friends, he formed many affinities [with people] and met many people. Some were teachers and some were friends. “Those whom he met were also many”. In each session where he expounded the Dharma, there were teachers, fellow students and friends; there were many people. “In this group” even though he met so many people, “he had never met any single person”. He did not recognize these people. “They suddenly emerged from the ground. There must be a cause for this. For these people to suddenly show up, there must be causes and conditions to this. So, Sakyamuni Buddha, please tell them about these people. On behalf of these people, please thoroughly tell them the purpose of these people coming, their causes and conditions and where they are from”. Maitreya Bodhisattva raised these questions to understand [more].

The next sutra passage continues with “Now at this great assembly, these countless trillions of Bodhisattvas and others all wish to know about this matter, about the causes and conditions of this group of Bodhisattvas from beginning to end. World-Honored One of infinite virtue, we only wish that You resolve people’s doubts.”

Now there were so many people at this great assembly; there were “countless trillions” of people. There were so many people. Looking around, [the assembly] was filled with people. Seeing the space from the Bodhisattva’s perspective, it was filled with “these countless trillions of Bodhisattvas”. They were all Bodhisattvas coming to listen to the Dharma and protect the Dharma. So, they were all called Bodhisattvas. “[They] all wish to know about this matter”. Everyone looked forward to understanding the matter of these people who came and their causes and conditions. So, everyone was looking forward to it. This was the number of people at the assembly and the purpose of their request. They asked where these people came from. Everyone present wanted to know. This was their wish. So, “Now this assembly would be happy to hear [about them]”.

Now this assembly would be happy to hear the causes of these Bodhisattvas from beginning to end. Each of them must have their own individual causes and conditions. When the Buddha personally speaks as a noble being, people’s doubts will be resolved.

Everyone there wanted to listen and understand the causes and conditions of the many Bodhisattvas who emerged from the ground and the reason they came. [They wanted to know] the goals they had, the responsibility they had and so on. All of them wanted to hear “the [causes of] these Bodhisattvas from beginning to end,” [They wanted to know] from beginning to end their causes and conditions, the reasons they came. “Each of them must have their own individual causes and conditions”. [They] believed that with so many [Bodhisattvas], each had their own individual causes and conditions. Indeed! Every single person has their own causes and conditions. Likewise, each Bodhisattva also has their own causes and conditions. This is very simple; we just talked about this. Sakyamuni Bodhisattva was so earnest. He did not care for himself; [everything he did was for] all sentient beings. He continuously formed good affinities with sentient beings and created blessings for them. With these causes and conditions, He could quickly attain Buddhahood before Maitreya Bodhisattva. Maitreya Bodhisattva was replete with wisdom. Why could he not [attain Buddhahood]? Amoghasiddhi Buddha mentioned, “It is because it is more difficult to be replete with affinities with sentient beings. It is easier to complete personal [cultivation]”. So, Maitreya only [completed] personal [cultivation]. He had very thorough wisdom. He completely understood all [principles]. He thoroughly understood the Buddha-Dharma and was replete with wisdom. However, he lacked affinities with sentient beings. Amoghasiddhi Buddha analyzed that it would be more difficult to accumulate affinities with sentient beings. It would be faster for Sakyamuni Buddha to attain [enlightenment].

So, by going among people, He formed good affinities. At the same time, with afflictions among people, he knew how to thoroughly understand the principles through the afflictions. Clearly seeing the root of the principles is not very difficult. He did not necessarily have to only benefit Himself. So, as we talked about Maitreya’s and Sakyamuni Buddha’s causes and conditions, they each had different causes and conditions. They had different perspectives. One said, “After completing my [cultivation], I will then transform others”. The other one thought, “With all the things I know now, I must quickly go and help others. With all I understand, I must help others. So, since I understand [the principles], I must go help others”. They had different mindsets, so they had different accomplishments. In short, everyone had different causes and conditions. “Each of them must have their own individual causes and conditions”. Each of them had their own causes and conditions. So, “When the Buddha personally speaks as a noble being, people’s doubts will be resolves”. What Maitreya meant was that, in fact, he knew [the causes and conditions], but it would not be as persuasive if he said it. As for these Bodhisattvas’ cause and conditions, he could not explain them persuasively. If Sakyamuni Buddha could explain this, everyone would believe Him. This describes [the depth of] Sakyamuni Buddha’s affinities with the world. To speak in a way that people believe us, we must have [good] affinities with them. When we speak to people we have affinities with, all they hear is true principles. If it is people we have [bad] affinities with, all they hear is antagonizing words. The principle is the same.

So, Maitreya asked the Buddha to teach in person, to speak about the reason these Bodhisattvas came. It was not that Maitreya had doubts; he asked on behalf of these Bodhisattvas. He also expressed the causes and conditions and the affinities that Sakyamuni Buddha formed with sentient beings in the Saha World.

The Buddha taught according to affinities. This was what he expressed. “The causes and conditions of this group of Bodhisattvas from beginning to end…”. [He] had to talk about the causes and conditions of these Bodhisattvas from beginning to end. These Bodhisattvas [had the causes and conditions] “from beginning to end,” from the root where they began. “Beginning” refers to the start. From start to finish, from beginning to end, “as he asked earlier, what were the various causes and conditions?” [Maitreya] hoped the causes and conditions of these Bodhisattvas from beginning to end could be explained by Sakyamuni Buddha verbally. [He hoped the Buddha] would explain the causes and conditions of these people.

So, “World-Honored One of infinite virtue, we only wish that You resolve people’s doubts.” Maitreya also wanted to express that he respected Sakyamuni Buddha. After all, Sakyamuni Buddha was the current [Buddha]. Although they cultivated together in the past, [Sakyamuni] Buddha had attained Buddhahood, while Maitreya was still a Bodhisattva. So, he had to respect the Buddha. Out of the etiquette of respect, he had to follow the etiquette and principles. He had to follow the principle of order and sequence; he had to follow this etiquette. So, the world of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas is just like [the human world].

At that place, Maitreya had to respectfully address the Buddha as “World-Honored One of infinite virtue.” He praised Him again “World-Honored One! Your infinite virtue is honored by the world. We only wish that the Great Enlightened World-Honored One would help these great Bodhisattvas resolve their doubts. [We hope You would] prevent them from harboring doubts in mind and help them resolve the doubts in their minds.” We know that in the Bodhisattvas’ world and the Buddha’s world, they also follow the same etiquette.

World-Honored One of infinite virtue, we only wish that You resolve people’s doubts: They only wished that the Great Enlightened. World-Honored One of 10,000 Virtues would resolve for the assembly of Bodhisattvas this feeling of doubt so that they would not harbor any doubts.

In our lives, throughout the day, we live amidst our Roots, Dusts and Consciousnesses. When our Roots connect with these Dusts, how should our consciousness, our thoughts, arise? We must open the door to our hearts every day. Once opened, our thoughts arise from our minds. When we see people, we must treat them with propriety and be courteous. As for the words we speak, we must greet others. So, we often say that when we see people, [we must say,] “Good morning!” “Good evening!” or “Good night!” We must first greet them or say hello to them. “Hello!” After we finish working with each other, [we say] “Thank you, thank you!” This is the etiquette. This is not just with words we say. As we open our minds, the words we speak must all be good words spoken kindly.

What about our bodies? Likewise, we must also have etiquette. We cannot do without etiquette. No matter what environment we enter, we must display the etiquette we have for that environment. This is the principle. So, our actions and speech come from our mind. As the door to our hearts open, all our appearances [are expressed] through our body and speech. Whether the actions of our bodies or words from our mouths, these are all “appearances.” “Appearances” come from our “minds.” Our minds refer to our thoughts. As the door of our minds open, our thoughts arise, our hands take action and our mouths utter words. This is how our daily living is inseparable from the principles. Principles exist in the display of etiquette. This is the “appearance.” “Principles” are intangible. “Appearances” can be displayed. So, we must understand “the law of arising and ceasing.” “The law of arising and ceasing” is about “appearances.” Within “appearance” and “non-appearance,” there are principles; we can understand how things “arise” and “cease.” In fact, things that arise do not exist forever; they do not always exist. If we are born in heaven, do we live forever? Being born in heaven gives us longer lifespans, but once we exhaust our blessings, we will fall into [other realms] again. Good and evil [retributions result from] the convergence of causes and conditions, so causes and conditions are very important. So, those who create blessings can go to heaven and enjoy heavenly blessings. Those who do evil will fall into hell and suffer. This is the law of karma. If our actions are right, we will be joyful. If there is a deviation in our actions, we will feel very troubled, and this will cause us lifelong regrets. In our daily life, amidst the arising and ceasing, [we must understand] how things arise in the beginning and where they return when they cease to exist. We must earnestly put our mind to use so that we can come and go with peace and clearly understand arising and ceasing. To be able to do so is the true goal of our lives. So, we must always be mindful!

(Source: Da Ai TV – Wisdom at Dawn program – Explanation by Master Chen-Yen)
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